tmok2014.htm
 
 


 
UNITED STATES
 
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
 
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

x
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014 or

o
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Commission file number 1-8002

THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
04-2209186
(State of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
   
81 Wyman Street
 
Waltham, Massachusetts
02451
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (781) 622-1000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
 
 
Common Stock, $1.00 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
Preferred Stock Purchase Rights
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
2.000% Notes due 2025
 
New York Stock Exchange
 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x  No o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes o  No x

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x  No o

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x  No o

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer x                                                   Accelerated filer o                                           Non-accelerated filer o                  Smaller reporting company o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o  No x

As of June 28, 2014, the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the Registrant was approximately $47,112,558,000 (based on the last reported sale of common stock on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Tape reporting system on June 28, 2014).

As of January 31, 2015, the Registrant had 396,782,757 shares of Common Stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Sections of Thermo Fisher’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2015 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Parts II and III of this report.
 
 


 

 
 

 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2014
 
   
   
Page
 
 
PART I
 
     
Item 1.
3
     
Item 1A.
17
     
Item 1B.
23
     
Item 2.
24
     
Item 3.
24
     
Item 4.
25
     
 
PART II
 
     
Item 5.
25
     
Item 6.
26
     
Item 7.
27
     
Item 7A.
48
     
Item 8.
49
     
Item 9.
49
     
Item 9A.
49
     
Item 9B.
50
     
 
PART III
 
     
Item 10.
50
     
Item 11.
50
     
Item 12.
50
     
Item 13.
51
     
Item 14.
51
     
 
PART IV
 
     
Item 15.
51
 
 
 
2

 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
PART I
 
Item 1.            Business
 
General Development of Business
 
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (also referred to in this document as “Thermo Fisher,” “we,” the “company,” or the “registrant”) is the world leader in serving science. Our mission is to enable our customers to make the world healthier, cleaner and safer. We help our customers accelerate life sciences research, solve complex analytical challenges, improve patient diagnostics and increase laboratory productivity.
 
On February 3, 2014, we completed our acquisition of Life Technologies Corporation (“Life Technologies”).
 
Thermo Fisher has approximately 51,000 employees and serves more than 400,000 customers within pharmaceutical and biotech companies, hospitals and clinical diagnostic labs, universities, research institutions and government agencies, as well as environmental, industrial quality and process control settings.
 
We serve our customers through our premier brands, Thermo Scientific, Applied Biosystems, Invitrogen, Fisher Scientific and Unity Lab Services:
 
    • The Thermo Scientific brand offers customers in research, diagnostics, industrial, and applied markets a complete range of high-end analytical instruments as well as laboratory equipment, software, services, consumables and reagents. Our portfolio of products includes innovative technologies for mass spectrometry, chromatography, elemental analysis, molecular spectroscopy, sample preparation, informatics, chemical research and analysis, cell culture, bioprocess production, cellular, protein and molecular biology research, allergy testing, drugs-of-abuse testing, therapeutic drug monitoring testing, microbiology, anatomical pathology, as well as environmental monitoring and process control.
     
    • The Applied Biosystems brand offers customers in research, clinical and applied markets integrated instrument systems, reagents, and software for genetic analysis. Our portfolio includes innovative technologies for genetic sequencing and real-time, digital and end point polymerase chain reaction (PCR), that are used to determine meaningful genetic information in applications such as cancer diagnostics, human identification testing, and animal health, as well as inherited and infectious disease.
     
    • The Invitrogen brand offers life science customers a broad range of consumables and instruments that accelerate research and ensure consistency of results. Our portfolio of products includes innovative solutions for cellular analysis and biology, flow cytometry, cell culture, protein expression, synthetic biology, molecular biology and protein biology.
     
    • Fisher Scientific is our channels brand, offering customers a complete portfolio of laboratory equipment, chemicals, supplies and services used in scientific research, healthcare, safety, and education markets. These products are offered through an extensive network of direct sales professionals, industry-specific catalogs, e-commerce capabilities and supply-chain management services. We also offer a range of biopharma services for clinical trials management and biospecimen storage.
     
    • Unity Lab Services is our services brand, offering a complete portfolio of services from enterprise level engagements to individual instruments and laboratory equipment, regardless of the original manufacturer. Through our network of world-class service and support personnel, we provide services that are designed to help our customers improve productivity, reduce costs, and drive decisions with better data.
 
We continuously increase our depth of capabilities in technologies, software and services, and leverage our extensive global channels to address our customers’ emerging needs. Our goal is to make our customers more productive in an increasingly competitive business environment, and to allow them to solve their challenges, from complex research to improved patient care, environmental and process monitoring, and consumer safety.
 
Thermo Fisher is a Delaware corporation and was incorporated in 1956. The company completed its initial public offering in 1967 and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1980.
 

 
3

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Forward-looking Statements
 
Forward-looking statements, within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act), are made throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical fact may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. Without limiting the foregoing, the words “believes,” “anticipates,” “plans,” “expects,” “seeks,” “estimates,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. While the company may elect to update forward-looking statements in the future, it specifically disclaims any obligation to do so, even if the company’s estimates change, and readers should not rely on those forward-looking statements as representing the company’s views as of any date subsequent to the date of the filing of this report.
 
A number of important factors could cause the results of the company to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements, including those detailed under the heading, “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A.
 
Business Segments and Products
 
We report our business in four segments – Life Sciences Solutions, Analytical Instruments, Specialty Diagnostics, and Laboratory Products and Services. For financial information about these segments, including domestic and international operations, see Note 3 to our Consolidated Financial Statements, which begin on page F-1 of this report.
 
Life Sciences Solutions Segment
 
Through our Life Sciences Solutions segment, we provide an extensive portfolio of reagents, instruments and consumables used in biological and medical research, discovery and production of new drugs and vaccines as well as diagnosis of disease. These products and services are used by customers in pharmaceutical, biotechnology, agricultural, clinical, academic, and government markets. Life Sciences Solutions includes three primary businesses – Biosciences, Genetic, Medical & Applied Sciences, and BioProduction.
 
Biosciences
 
Our biosciences business includes reagents, instruments and consumables that help our customers conduct biological and medical research, discover new drugs and vaccines, and diagnose disease.
 
Our biosciences offerings include:
 
 
  •
Reagents, instruments, and consumables used for protein biology, molecular biology, and cell imaging and analysis. The portfolio includes antibodies and products for protein purification, detection, modification, and analysis; and sequencing, detection and purification products used for high content analysis of nucleic acids. Many of these products are also used in applied markets, including agriculture, forensics, diagnostics product development, and toxicology research.
 
 
  •
Tools used for genetic engineering, amplification, quantification and analysis as well as RNA isolation, including stem cell reprogramming kits, transfection reagents, RNA interference reagents, along with gene editing tools and gene synthesis products.
 
 
  •
Cell culture media and reagents for preserving and growing mammalian cells which are used in many life science research applications.
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
 
Fluorescence-based technologies, which facilitate the labeling of molecules for biological research and drug discovery. These technologies include a wide range of cell analysis instruments, including flow cytometers and imaging platforms that enable fluorescence microscopy.
 
 
Protein analysis products, including pre-cast electrophoresis gels for separating nucleic acids and proteins, and western blotting and staining tools.
 
Genetic, Medical & Applied Sciences
 
Our genetic, medical and applied sciences business combines a wide variety of instruments and related reagents used to analyze DNA across a broad range of applications in research, clinical and applied markets.
 
Our genetic, medical and applied sciences offerings include:
 
 
Capillary electrophoresis (CE), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms and reagents. These products are used to discover sources of genetic and epigenetic variation, to catalog the DNA structure of organisms, and to verify the composition of genetic research material. In addition to research, these genetic analysis techniques are used in diverse applied markets including human identification (HID), animal health and food safety. For example, in HID we provide our instrument platforms and reagents to forensic laboratories that analyze DNA recovered from crime scenes. Primary customers include the FBI and police departments around the world. Our technologies are also used in numerous clinical research and diagnostic applications with a focus on cancer and inherited disease. These applications include molecular diagnostics, diagnostic development, clinical and translational research, and public health monitoring.
 
 
PCR and real-time PCR systems, reagents and assays that enable researchers to amplify and detect targeted nucleic acids (DNA and RNA molecules) for a host of applications in molecular biology.
 
BioProduction
 
Our bioproduction business supports developers and manufacturers of biological-based therapeutics and vaccines with a portfolio of premium solutions and services focused on upstream cell culture, downstream purification, analytics for detection and quantitation of process/product impurities, and a suite of single-use solutions spanning the biologics workflow.
 
Our bioproduction offerings include:
 
 
Single-use bioproduction solutions that provide our customers with faster turnaround and set-up times, minimal validation requirements, reduced investment and running costs, and increased flexibility of manufacturing capacity.
 
 
Production cell culture media solutions, which are used by leading biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to grow cells in controlled conditions and enable large scale cGMP (Current Good Manufacturing Process) manufacturing of drugs and vaccines. We also provide our customers with the associated services to optimize the productivity of these production platforms.
 
 
Chromatography products, which deliver unmatched capacity and resolution for process-scale bioseparations, and offer a broad set of scalable options for the purification of antibodies, antibody fragments and proteins.
 
 
Rapid molecular products that deliver accurate results in less than four hours for contaminant detection, identification and quantitation.
 
 
Scalable solutions for the manufacture of cell therapy based drugs.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Analytical Instruments Segment
 
Through our Analytical Instruments segment, we provide a broad offering of instruments, consumables, software and services that are used for a range of applications in the laboratory, on the production line and in the field. These products and services are used by customers in pharmaceutical, biotechnology, academic, government, environmental and other research and industrial markets, as well as the clinical laboratory. This segment includes two primary businesses – Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry, and Chemical Analysis.
 
Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry
 
Our chromatography and mass spectrometry business provides analytical instrumentation for organic and inorganic sample analysis. These products are complemented by laboratory information management systems (LIMS); chromatography data systems (CDS); database analytical tools; automation systems; and a range of consumables, such as a full line of chromatography columns.
 
Mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique for analyzing chemical compounds, individually or in complex mixtures, by forming charged ions that are then analyzed according to their mass-to-charge ratios. In addition to molecular information, each discrete chemical compound generates a pattern that provides structurally identifiable information. Our comprehensive offering includes life sciences mass spectrometry systems; inorganic mass spectrometry systems; and elemental analysis instrumentation; as well as a range of sample preparation and separation products including auto-samplers and multiplexing systems.
 
 
  •
Life Sciences Mass Spectrometers include three major product lines: triple quadrupole, ion trap and hybrid systems. Our triple quadrupole systems provide high performance quantitative analysis of chemicals in biological fluids, environmental samples and food matrices. They are also used by the pharmaceutical industry for targeted quantitation during drug discovery. Our ion trap systems are used for in-depth structural analysis of large biomolecules, such as proteins, as well as structural characterization of small molecules, such as drugs and drug metabolites. Our hybrid (LC/MS/MS) mass spectrometers combine linear ion trap, quadrupole and Orbitrap technologies to provide high resolution and accurate mass capabilities for both research and applied markets and are well suited for drug metabolism, proteomics, environmental analysis, food safety, toxicology and clinical research applications. We also offer a comprehensive portfolio of instrument control and data analysis software to help customers simplify their workflows and obtain knowledge from often complex data.
 
 
  •
Inorganic Mass Spectrometers include four product lines: isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); multi-collector mass spectrometry (MC/IRMS); inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS); and high resolution trace mass spectrometry (HR Trace/MS). These products are primarily used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of inorganic matter in a range of applications, including environmental analysis, materials science and earth sciences.
 
Chromatography is a technique for separating, identifying and quantifying individual chemical components of substances based on their specific physical and chemical characteristics. Our chromatography product line includes high performance liquid chromatography, ion chromatography and gas chromatography systems, all of which are supported by our Chromeleon chromatography data system software. Our comprehensive array of consumables and environmental sampling products complete the workflow solution.
 
 
  •
Liquid Chromatography (LC) Systems analyze complex sample matrices in liquids. Our high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) systems offer high throughput and sensitivity and are sold either as stand-alone systems or integrated with our mass spectrometers (LC/MS and LC/MS/MS). These systems are used for a range of applications, from complex proteomic analyses to routine industrial QA/QC.
 
 
  •
Ion Chromatography (IC) Systems separate ionic (charged) or highly polar molecules (e.g., sugars and carbohydrates), usually found in water-based solutions, and typically detect them based on their electrical conductivity. Our IC products are used in a wide range of applications, including scientific research, and environmental testing, as well as quality control in pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and other industrial processes.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
 
  •
Gas Chromatography (GC) Systems analyze complex sample matrices in gases, comprising both separation and detection technology. Separation technology is common to all gas chromatography analyzers, and is paired with either a conventional detector (GC) or with different types of mass spectrometers (GC/MS). Our GC/MS offering includes a triple stage quadrupole, a single stage quadrupole, and an ion trap, for a range of applications, including food safety testing, quantitative screening of environmental samples, and complex molecular analyses.
 
Our elemental analysis spectrometers include two product lines: atomic absorption (AA) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) systems, which use atomic spectroscopy techniques to identify trace concentrations of elements in liquid and solid samples primarily in environmental, petrochemical, food safety, metallurgical, geochemical and clinical/toxicology research applications. These products are widely used in growth markets such as China, India and Latin America to support compliance with increasingly stringent international environmental and consumer safety regulations.
 
Chemical Analysis
 
Our chemical analysis products fall into five main categories: materials and minerals; molecular spectroscopy; portable analytical instruments; radiation measurement and security instruments; and environmental and process instruments. Customers use these products to quickly and accurately analyze the composition of materials to optimize workflows in academic, life sciences, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications or to help them comply with governmental regulations and industry safety standards. Our product lines range from those used in the laboratory for research or forensics, to those used on the production line to improve quality and efficiency, to portable systems for rapid and real-time identification in the field or to analyze, measure or respond to hazardous situations.
 
 
  •
Materials and Minerals Instruments include bench-top, production line, and stand-alone systems for a range of industrial applications. For example, our laboratory elemental analyzers use X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and arc spark optical emission (OES) techniques for accurate and precise analysis of bulk materials in the metals, cement, minerals, and petrochemicals industries. We also offer on line analyzers that employ neutron activation and measurement of gamma rays to analyze bulk materials non-invasively and in real time, as well as systems that enable high-speed weighing during bulk materials handling. We also offer gauging systems that employ ionizing and non-ionizing technologies to measure the total thickness, basis weight and coating thickness of flat-sheet materials, such as steel, plastics, foil, rubber and glass. We also offer on line analyzers based on a variety of technologies such as X-ray imaging and ultra-trace chemical detection, to inspect packaged goods for physical contaminants, validate fill quantities, or check for missing or broken parts on line and at high speeds in the food and beverage, pharmaceutical production and packaging industries to maintain safety and quality standards.
 
 
  •
Molecular Spectroscopy Instruments are divided into five primary techniques: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, near-infrared (NIR), ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These technologies are typically used in the laboratory to provide information on the structure of molecules to identify, verify and quantify organic materials in pharmaceutical, biotechnology, polymer, chemical, and forensic sciences. Our material characterization instruments include rheometers and extruders that measure viscosity, elasticity, processability, and temperature-related mechanical changes of various materials. We also provide a range of surface analysis instruments commonly used in the semiconductor, metals, coatings, and polymer industries as a product development and failure analysis tool.
 
 
  •
Portable Analytical Instruments are rugged handheld products that provide rapid, precise, real-time analysis at the point of need. Our two main product categories are elemental and optical analyzers. Our portable elemental analyzers use XRF technology for identifying metal alloys in scrap metal recycling; QA/QC; precious metals analysis; environmental analysis; and lead screening in a range of consumer products. Our portable optical analyzers utilize Raman, FTIR and NIR technologies for use in the field by first responders, and law enforcement and military personnel who need to quickly and accurately identify chemicals and explosives in critical safety and security situations. Other applications include QA/QC in pharmaceutical production and identification of counterfeit drugs.
 
 
 

THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
 
  •
Radiation Measurement and Security Products are used to monitor, detect and identify specific forms of radiation and trace explosives in nuclear power, environmental, industrial, medical, and security applications. Our primary customers include national, regional, and local government agencies responsible for monitoring cargo, vehicles and people traveling across borders. These products are also used by first-responders in safety and security situations, and for worker safety in the nuclear power and other industrial markets.
 
 
  •
Environmental and Process Instruments include fixed and portable instrumentation that help our customers protect people and the environment as well as comply with government regulations and industry safety standards. Our products are used by environmental regulatory agencies and power plant operators to measure ambient air, stack gas emissions, and particulates in compliance with regulated emissions standards. Our products are also used in process monitoring applications by customers in natural gas, petrochemical, refining, bioprocessing, and a wide variety of other industrial markets to provide measurements that improve efficiency, provide process and quality control, and increase worker safety.
 
In addition to our broad product offerings, we offer a variety of specialized services to our customers through our Unity Lab Services team, including equipment servicing, instrument calibration services, asset management and training.
 
Specialty Diagnostics Segment
 
Our Specialty Diagnostics segment offers a wide range of diagnostic test kits, reagents, culture media, instruments and associated products in order to serve customers in healthcare, clinical, pharmaceutical, industrial, and food safety laboratories. Our healthcare products are used to increase the speed and accuracy of diagnoses, which improves patient care in a more cost efficient manner. This segment has six primary businesses – Clinical Diagnostics, ImmunoDiagnostics, Microbiology, Anatomical Pathology, Transplant Diagnostics and our Healthcare Market Channel.
 
Clinical Diagnostics
 
Our clinical diagnostics products include a broad offering of liquid, ready-to-use and lyophilized immunodiagnostic reagent kits, calibrators, controls and calibration verification fluids. In particular, we provide products used for drugs-of-abuse testing; therapeutic drug monitoring, including immunosuppressant drug testing; thyroid hormone testing; serum toxicology; clinical chemistry; immunology; hematology; coagulation; glucose tolerance testing; first trimester screening; tumor markers testing; and biomarkers testing for sepsis, acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. We also private label many of our reagents and controls for major in vitro diagnostics companies through OEM arrangements. In many instances, we will work with customers or partners to develop new products and applications for their instrument platforms.
 
We have developed one of the broadest menus for drugs-of-abuse immunoassays. We also provide a broad offering of immunosuppressant drug immunoassays that can be used on a variety of clinical chemistry analyzers.
 
Our clinical chemistry systems include analyzers and reagents to analyze and measure routine blood and urine chemistry, such as glucose and cholesterol; and advanced testing for specific proteins, therapeutic drug monitoring and drugs-of-abuse. Our diagnostic test range currently covers approximately 80 different validated methods. We also provide pre- and post-analytical automation for preparation of blood specimens before and after analysis, and specialty diagnostic tests based on patented biomarkers for sepsis, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, as well as intensive care treatments and prenatal screening.
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
ImmunoDiagnostics

    Our immunodiagnostics offerings include developing, manufacturing and marketing complete blood-test systems to support the clinical diagnosis and monitoring of allergy, asthma and autoimmune diseases. Unlike skin prick tests, our in vitro allergy diagnostic tests utilize flexible systems which provide for convenient and accurate allergy diagnoses on low and high-throughput automation. In addition, we now can offer antibody tests for approximately 20 indications to help diagnose autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, lupus and scleroderma. These allergy and autoimmunity product lines operate on a common instrument platform which supports both productivity and cost efficiencies in clinical laboratories around the world. Our products include ImmunoCAP for allergy and asthma tests and EliA for autoimmunity tests.
 
Microbiology
 
    Our microbiology offerings include dehydrated and prepared culture media, collection and transport systems, instrumentation and consumables to detect pathogens in blood, diagnostic and rapid direct specimen tests, quality-control products and associated products for the microbiology laboratory. Our products help customers worldwide to diagnose infectious disease; determine appropriate antimicrobial therapy; implement effective infection control programs; and detect microbial contamination of their products or manufacturing facilities.
 
Within the food and pharmaceutical industries, our products are used to assure the safety and quality of consumer products by monitoring production environments; raw materials and end products for bacterial contamination; and animal health in the dairy industry.
 
Anatomical Pathology
 
Our anatomical pathology offerings include a broad portfolio of products primarily for cancer diagnosis and medical research in histology, cytology and hematology applications. These products include a wide range of instruments, consumables and reagents for specimen collection and transport, tissue preparation, staining and immunohistochemistry assays and controls. Reagent and consumable products include sample collection and preservation products used to ensure specimen integrity; tissue cassettes and reagents necessary for same-day, high-quality specimen processing; blades and paraffin used to section tissue; and a wide range of leading stains. Also included are a full line of immunohistochemistry antibodies, detection systems, ancillaries and controls.
 
We also provide a complete range of anatomical pathology instruments including cassette and slide labeling systems, which enable on-demand slide and cassette printing; tissue processors for same-day tissue-processing; embedding stations, microtomes and cryostats used to section tissue; and automated staining and cover slip systems used for primary and immunohistochemistry staining. In cytology, we offer low-speed centrifugation technology coupled with patented EZ cytofunnels to deposit a thin layer of cells onto a microscope slide to ensure better cell capture and better preservation of cell morphology. We manufacture high-quality flat-sheet glass to produce medical disposable products such as microscope slides, plates, cover glass, and microarray substrates serving the medical, diagnostics, and scientific communities. We also offer specialized hydrophobic, adhesive, and fluorescent slides through proprietary coating techniques.
 
Transplant Diagnostics
 
Our transplant diagnostics products include human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing and testing for the organ transplant market. Our diagnostic tests are used by transplant centers for tissue typing, primarily to determine the compatibility of donors and recipients pre-transplant, and to detect the presence of antibodies post-transplant that can lead to transplant rejection. These transplant diagnostic tests are widely used across the transplant-testing workflow to improve patient outcomes. Our transplant diagnostic offerings include several lines of HLA typing and antibody detection assays utilizing serological, molecular, ELISA, flow, and multiplexing technologies.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Healthcare Market Channel
 
    Our Healthcare Market channel offerings include a broad array of consumables, diagnostic kits and reagents, equipment, instruments, solutions and services for hospitals, clinical laboratories, reference laboratories, physicians’ offices and other clinical testing facilities. These products are manufactured by Thermo Fisher and third parties.

    Healthcare Market products and solutions focus on the collection, transportation and analysis of biological samples. Major product lines include anatomical pathology, molecular diagnostic, and cardiac risk management solutions; blood collection devices; and an extensive portfolio of rapid diagnostic testing kits.
 
Laboratory Products and Services Segment
 
Our Laboratory Products and Services segment offers virtually everything needed for the laboratory. Our unique combination of self-manufactured and sourced products and extensive service offering enables our customers to focus on their core activities and helps them to be more efficient, productive and cost effective. We serve the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, academic, government and other research and industrial markets, as well as the clinical laboratory through four key businesses: Laboratory Equipment, Laboratory Consumables, Research and Safety Market Channel, and BioPharma Services.
 
Laboratory Equipment
 
Our Laboratory Equipment products are used primarily by pharmaceutical companies for drug discovery and development and by biotechnology companies and universities for life science research to advance the prevention and cure of diseases and enhance quality of life. This offering consists of equipment, accessories, and services for sample preparation, storage and protection, and analysis, with product categories including:
 
 
  •
Sample Preparation and Preservation Equipment protects our customers’ chemical and biological samples and supports the growth of cells and organisms in optimal conditions such as temperature, carbon dioxide and humidity. This offering includes a comprehensive range of incubators and other related products.
 
 
  •
Cold Storage Equipment such as our leading laboratory refrigerators and freezers, ultralow-temperature freezers and cryopreservation storage tanks maintain samples in a cold environment to protect them from degradation.
 
 
  •
Centrifugation Products are used to separate biological matrices and inorganic materials. Our broad range includes microcentrifuges, which are used primarily for the purification of nucleic acids in the molecular biology laboratory; general use bench-top centrifuges for processing clinical samples such as blood and urine; and our floor models, which are used for large-volume blood processing or in laboratories with high-throughput needs. Our super-speed and ultra-speed models are used for applications such as protein purification.
 
 
  •
Biological Safety Cabinets enable technicians to handle samples without risk to themselves or their environment and without risk of cross-contamination of samples. These cabinets, equipped with filtered-air ventilation, controlled laminar flow and an ultraviolet source, can be used for tissue culture; handling of infectious samples; forensic analysis; bioterrorism research; and other applications.
 
 
  •
Temperature Control Products include heated bath circulators, immersion coolers, recirculating chillers, water baths, and dry baths in a range of sizes, temperatures and configurations for life science, analytical chemistry, manufacturing and quality-control applications.
 
 
  •
Water Analysis Instruments include meters, electrodes and solutions for the measurement of pH, ions, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and other key parameters in the lab and production line. Based upon electrochemical and optical sensing technologies, these products are used wherever the quality of water and water-based products or processes are critical, such as QA/QC in the food and beverage industry, chemical and pharmaceutical production, and for environmental compliance.
 
 
  •
Other Laboratory Equipment includes water purification systems, shakers, vacuum concentrators, microbiological incubators, ovens, furnaces, hotplates, stirrers, stirring hotplates, and other related products.
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Laboratory Consumables
 
Our laboratory consumables products include plastics, glass and related equipment, which customers use every day to support their scientific research; drug discovery and development; quality and process control; and clinical and basic research and development needs. Our product categories include cell culture and bioproduction; sample preparation and storage; liquid handling; detection instruments; and specialty products and services.
 
 
  •
Cell Culture and Bioproduction Products support customers in research to production-scale activities. We offer a broad range of surface technologies for different application needs, including applications with traditional stem cell and human stem cell lines. Products include chamber slides, dishes, multidishes, flasks and gas permeable technologies. We also offer a complete line of serological pipettes and conical tubes to address cell-culture sample handling, as well as cell factories and roller bottles, and research serum and media products. These products are widely used in research and in the manufacture of vaccines and biotherapeutics.
 
 
  •
Sample Preparation and Storage Products include a full line of centrifugation consumables as well as vials and organization systems for ultralow temperature and cryogenic storage, with specific products designed for low protein binding and low DNA binding. We also offer containers for packaging life science and diagnostic reagents as well for the storage and transport of bulk intermediates and active pharmaceutical ingredients.
 
 
  •
Liquid Handling Products include a leading offering of laboratory pipette tips and a complementary range of handheld and automated pipetting systems, supporting low- through high-throughput activity. These products optimize productivity and ergonomics, and ensure accurate results.
 
 
  •
Detection Instruments include microplate readers, washers and purification systems. These instruments offer researchers in the fields of cancer research, drug development, proteomics, and genomics efficiency, high-quality performance and accurate results.
 
 
  •
Specialty Products and Services include a complete selection of clinical specimen collection, drug-of-abuse collection kits and environmental and food-safety glass and plastic vials, bottles and containers. We also manufacture plastic transfer pipettes and general purpose clinical laboratory consumables. We also offer containers for breast milk collection, storage and feeding primarily used in neo-natal units and by lactation specialists. In addition, we provide OEM and custom kit assembly services for clinical and drugs-of-abuse test kits.
 
 
  •
Global Chemicals comprises a broad range of chemicals, solvents and reagents supporting virtually every laboratory application – from research to drug discovery and development and manufacturing. This portfolio includes organic chemicals used to synthesize new materials; essential laboratory chemicals used by scientists to purify, extract, separate, identify and manufacture products; high purity analytical reagents, bioreagents used in many different applications, from cell growth to detailed protein analysis; and novel chemical building blocks, reactive intermediates and screening libraries used to accelerate drug discovery. We provide bulk volumes of many products for scale-up from research to development and customized services for chemical procurement, processing, production, testing, and packaging.
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Research and Safety Market Channel
 
Our Research and Safety Market channel serves academic, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, government and industrial customers. We go to market through our broad sales force, printed catalogs in eight different languages, a state-of-the-art website, www.fishersci.com, containing full product content for more than 417,000 products, and our global network of resellers and distributors. The Fisher Scientific catalog has been published for more than 100 years and is an internationally recognized scientific supply resource.
 
We have an international network of warehouses in our primary markets through which we maintain inventory and coordinate product delivery. With specialized product vaults and warehouse management systems, we are able to handle the complete range of products we offer to our customers. Our transportation capabilities include our dedicated fleet of delivery vehicles as well as parcel shipping capabilities that are closely integrated with our third-party parcel carriers. Throughout the product delivery process, we provide our customers with convenient access to comprehensive electronic systems that offer automated catalog search, product order and invoicing, and payment capabilities.
 
Our channel offers a mix of products that are manufactured by Thermo Fisher, by third parties for us on a private-label basis, and by third parties under their brand but offered for sale exclusively through us. We also offer a broad range of third-party products representing leading industry brand names on a non-exclusive basis.
 
Our research products include a complete offering of laboratory products, ranging from capital equipment and instruments to chemicals to consumable products. Our safety products include clean-room and controlled-environment supplies, personal protective equipment, firefighting, military, and first responder equipment and supplies, and environmental monitoring and sampling equipment. Our education products include science-related and laboratory products for the K-12 and secondary education market.
 
Our Doe & Ingalls offerings include chemical distribution and supply chain services that help life science and advanced technology manufacturers have reliable, secure supply chains for their chemical raw materials.
 
In addition to our broad product offerings, we offer a variety of specialized services to our customers through our Unity Lab Services team, including training, equipment servicing and asset management, and dedicated supply management personnel. We also offer scientific support services including desktop delivery, coordination of instrument calibration and service, and on-site customer service.
 
BioPharma Services
 
Our BioPharma Services offerings include global services for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies engaged in clinical trials, including specialized packaging; over-encapsulation; multi-lingual and specialized labeling and distribution for phase I through phase IV clinical trials; biological-specimen management; specialty pharmaceutical logistics; and clinical supply-chain planning and management. Thermo Fisher’s biobanking business provides temperature-controlled repository services for pharmaceutical, biotechnology, university, government, clinical and blood-processing customers. Our biobanking services business stores pharmacological and biospecimen samples at commercial sites. Additional services include inventory management, validation, business continuity, and repository management and transportation capabilities, resulting in a complete cold chain sample management solution.
 
Sales and Marketing
 
We market and sell our products and services through a direct sales force, customer-service professionals, electronic commerce, third-party distributors and various catalogs.
 
We have approximately 17,500 sales and service personnel including over 3,000 highly trained technical specialists who enable us to better meet the needs of our more technical end-users. We also provide customers with product standardization and other supply-chain-management services to reduce procurement costs.
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
New Products and Research and Development
 
Our business includes the development and introduction of new products and may include entry into new business segments. During 2014, 2013 and 2012, we spent $691 million, $396 million and $376 million, respectively, on research and development. We anticipate that we will continue to make significant expenditures for research and development as we seek to provide a continuing flow of innovative products to maintain and improve our competitive position.
 
Raw Materials
 
Our management team believes that we have a readily available supply of raw materials for all of our significant products from various sources. We do not anticipate any difficulties obtaining the raw materials essential to our business.
 
Raw-material and fuel prices are subject to fluctuations due to market conditions. We employ many strategies, including the use of alternative materials, to mitigate the effect of these fluctuations on our results.
 
Patents, Licenses and Trademarks
 
Patents are important in all segments of our business. No particular patent, or related group of patents, is so important, however, that its loss would significantly affect our operations as a whole. Where appropriate, we seek patent protection for inventions and developments made by our personnel that are incorporated into our products or otherwise fall within our fields of interest. Patent rights resulting from work sponsored by outside parties do not always accrue exclusively to the company and may be limited by agreements or contracts.
 
We protect some of our technology as trade secrets and, where appropriate, we use trademarks or register trademarks used in connection with products. We also enter into license agreements with others to grant and/or receive rights to patents and know-how.
 
Seasonal Influences
 
Revenues in the fourth quarter are historically stronger than in other quarters due to the capital spending patterns of industrial, pharmaceutical and government customers. Sales of flu tests and related diagnostic products vary quarter to quarter and year to year based on the severity and duration of each period’s flu season. Sales of allergy tests vary quarter to quarter and year to year based on the severity and duration of each period’s airborne pollen allergens.
 
Working Capital Requirements
 
There are no special inventory requirements or credit terms extended to customers that would have a material adverse effect on our working capital.
 
Dependency on a Single Customer
 
There is no single customer the loss of which would have a material adverse effect on our business. No customer accounted for more than 5% of our total revenues in any of the past three years.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Business (continued)
 
Backlog
 
Our backlog of firm orders at year-end 2014 and 2013 was as follows:
 
(In millions)
 
2014
   
2013
 
             
Life Sciences Solutions
  $ 365.5     $ 111.5  
Analytical Instruments
    948.0       921.5  
Specialty Diagnostics
    189.7       183.0  
Laboratory Products and Services
    442.6       409.4  
Eliminations
    (22.7 )     (21.1 )
                 
    $ 1,923.1     $ 1,604.3  

We believe that virtually all of our backlog at the end of 2014 will be filled during 2015.
 
Government Contracts
 
Although the company transacts business with various government agencies, no government contract is of such magnitude that a renegotiation of profits or termination of the contract at the election of the government agency would have a material adverse effect on the company’s financial results.
 
Competition
 
The company encounters aggressive and able competition in virtually all of the markets we serve. Because of the diversity of our products and services, we face many different types of competitors and competition. Our competitors include a broad range of manufacturers and third-party distributors. Competitive climates in many of the markets we serve are characterized by changing technology and customer demands that require continuing research and development. Our success primarily depends on the following factors:
 
   • technical performance and advances in technology that result in new products and improved price/performance ratios;
     
   • product differentiation, availability and reliability;
     
   • the depth of our capabilities;
     
   • our reputation among customers as a quality provider of products and services;
     
   • customer service and support;
     
   • active research and application-development programs; and
     
   • relative prices of our products and services.
 
Environmental Matters
 
We are subject to various laws and governmental regulations concerning environmental matters and employee safety and health in the United States and other countries. U.S. federal environmental legislation that affects us includes the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). We are also subject to regulation by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) concerning employee safety and health matters. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), OSHA, and other federal agencies have the authority to promulgate regulations that have an effect on our operations.
 
In addition to these federal activities, various states have been delegated certain authority under the aforementioned federal statutes as well as having authority over these matters under state laws. Many state and local governments have adopted environmental and employee safety and health laws and regulations, some of which are similar to federal requirements.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC. 
 
Business (continued)
 
    A number of our operations involve the handling, manufacturing, use or sale of substances that are or could be classified as toxic or hazardous materials within the meaning of applicable laws. Consequently, some risk of environmental harm is inherent in our operations and products, as it is with other companies engaged in similar businesses.
 
    Our expenses for environmental requirements are incurred generally for ongoing compliance and historical remediation matters. Based on current information, we believe that these compliance costs are not material. For historical remediation obligations, our expenditures relate primarily to the cost of permitting, installing, and operating and maintaining groundwater-treatment systems and other remedial measures.
 
Our Fair Lawn and Somerville, New Jersey facilities entered into administrative consent orders with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection in 1984 to maintain groundwater-remediation activities at these sites, and are currently under the State’s Licensed Site Remediation Professional Program. As the owner of the Fair Lawn facility, we are listed as a potentially responsible party for remediation within an area called the Fair Lawn Wellfields Superfund Site, and, in 2008, the company and certain other parties entered into a consent order with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to complete a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. In 2011, our Life Technologies subsidiary entered into a consent decree with the USEPA and other responsible parties to implement a groundwater remedy at the former Davis Landfill Superfund site in Smithfield, Rhode Island.
 
We record accruals for environmental liabilities based on current interpretations of environmental laws and regulations when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of such liability can be reasonably estimated. We calculate estimates based upon several factors, including reports prepared by environmental specialists and management’s knowledge and experience with these environmental matters. We include in these estimates potential costs for investigation, remediation and operation and maintenance of cleanup sites. Accrued liabilities for environmental matters totaled $32 million at December 31, 2014.
 
These environmental liabilities do not include third-party recoveries to which we may be entitled. We believe that our accrual is adequate for the environmental liabilities we currently expect to incur. As a result we believe that our ultimate liability with respect to environmental matters will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. However, we may be subject to remedial or compliance costs due to future events, such as changes in existing laws and regulations, changes in agency direction or enforcement policies, developments in remediation technologies, changes in the conduct of our operations, and the effect of changes in accounting rules, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
 
Regulatory Affairs
 
Our operations, and some of the products we offer, are subject to a number of complex and stringent laws and regulations governing the production, handling, transportation and distribution of chemicals, drugs and other similar products, including the operating and security standards of the Food and Drug Administration, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, and various state boards of pharmacy as well as comparable state and foreign agencies. As Thermo Fisher’s businesses also include export and import activities, we are subject to pertinent laws enforced by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, State and Treasury. In addition, our logistics activities must comply with the rules and regulations of the Department of Transportation, the Federal Aviation Administration and similar foreign agencies. While we believe we are in compliance in all material respects with such laws and regulations, any noncompliance could result in substantial fines or otherwise restrict our ability to provide competitive distribution services and thereby have an adverse effect on our financial condition. To date, none has had a material impact on our operations.
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
    We are subject to laws and regulations governing government contracts, and failure to address these laws and regulations or comply with government contracts could harm our business by leading to a reduction in revenue associated with these customers. We have agreements relating to the sale of our products to government entities and, as a result, we are subject to various statutes and regulations that apply to companies doing business with the government. We are also subject to investigation for compliance with the regulations governing government contracts. A failure to comply with these regulations could result in suspension of these contracts, criminal, civil and administrative penalties or debarment.
 
Number of Employees
 
We have approximately 51,000 employees.
 
Financial Information About Geographic Areas
 
Financial information about geographic areas is summarized in Note 3 to our Consolidated Financial Statements, which begin on page F-1 of this report.
 
Available Information
 
The company files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Exchange Act. The public may read and copy any materials that we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Also, the SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information that issuers, including the company, file electronically with the SEC. The public can obtain any documents that we file with the SEC at www.sec.gov. We also make available free of charge on or through our own website at www.thermofisher.com our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, paper copies of these documents may be obtained free of charge by writing to the company care of its Investor Relations Department at our principal executive office located at 81 Wyman Street, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451.
 
Executive Officers of the Registrant
 
Name
 
Age
 
Present Title (Fiscal Year First Became Executive Officer)
 
           
Marc N. Casper
 
46
 
President and Chief Executive Officer (2001)
 
Alan J. Malus
 
55
 
Executive Vice President (2006)
 
Mark P. Stevenson
 
52
 
Executive Vice President (2014)
 
Seth H. Hoogasian
 
60
 
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary (2001)
 
Thomas W. Loewald
 
51
 
Senior Vice President (2012)
 
Andrew J. Thomson
 
50
 
Senior Vice President (2012)
 
Peter M. Wilver
 
55
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2003)
 
Peter E. Hornstra
 
55
 
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer (2001)
 

Mr. Casper was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer in October 2009. He was Chief Operating Officer from May 2008 to October 2009 and Executive Vice President from November 2006 to October 2009. He was Senior Vice President from December 2003 to November 2006. From December 2001 to December 2003 he was Vice President.
 
Mr. Malus was appointed Executive Vice President of Thermo Fisher Scientific in January 2012 and was appointed President, Laboratory Products and Services in January 2014. He was President, Analytical Technologies from January 2012 to January 2014. He was President, Laboratory Products from July 2008 to January 2012, President, Customer Channels from November 2006 to July 2008 and was appointed Senior Vice President of Thermo Fisher Scientific in November 2006.
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
    Mr. Stevenson was appointed Executive Vice President and President, Life Sciences Solutions in February 2014. Prior to the acquisition of Life Technologies, Mr. Stevenson was President and Chief Operating Officer of Life Technologies from November 2008 to February 2014 and previously President and Chief Operating Officer of Applied Biosystems, Life Technologies’ predecessor entity, from December 2007 to November 2008.
 
Mr. Hoogasian was appointed Senior Vice President in November 2006, Secretary in 2001 and General Counsel in 1992. He was Vice President from 1996 to November 2006.
 
Mr. Loewald was appointed Senior Vice President of Thermo Fisher Scientific in January 2012 and appointed President, Analytical Instruments in January 2014. He was President, Laboratory Products from January 2012 to January 2014. He was President of the Laboratory Equipment business from August 2008 to December 2011 and was President of the Environmental Instruments business from October 2006 until August 2008.
 
Mr. Thomson was appointed Senior Vice President of Thermo Fisher Scientific and President, Specialty Diagnostics in February 2012. He was President of the Clinical Diagnostics business from October 2009 to May 2012 and was Vice President and General Manager for North America for the Microbiology business from January 2009 until October 2009.
 
Mr. Wilver was appointed Senior Vice President in November 2006 and Chief Financial Officer in October 2004. He was Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from October 2004 to November 2006. Mr. Wilver is retiring from the Company on March 31, 2016, and will cease to be the Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer on August 1, 2015.
 
Mr. Hornstra was appointed Vice President in February 2007 and Chief Accounting Officer in January 2001. He was Corporate Controller from January 1996 to February 2007.
 
Item 1A.         Risk Factors
 
Set forth below are the risks that we believe are material to our investors. This section contains forward-looking statements. You should refer to the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on forward-looking statements beginning on page 4.
 
We must develop new products, adapt to rapid and significant technological change and respond to introductions of new products by competitors to remain competitive. Our growth strategy includes significant investment in and expenditures for product development. We sell our products in several industries that are characterized by rapid and significant technological changes, frequent new product and service introductions and enhancements and evolving industry standards. Competitive factors include technological innovation, price, service and delivery, breadth of product line, customer support, e-business capabilities and the ability to meet the special requirements of customers. Our competitors may adapt more quickly to new technologies and changes in customers’ requirements than we can. Without the timely introduction of new products, services and enhancements, our products and services will likely become technologically obsolete over time, in which case our revenue and operating results would suffer.
 
Many of our existing products and those under development are technologically innovative and require significant planning, design, development and testing at the technological, product and manufacturing-process levels. Our customers use many of our products to develop, test and manufacture their own products. As a result, we must anticipate industry trends and develop products in advance of the commercialization of our customers’ products. If we fail to adequately predict our customers’ needs and future activities, we may invest heavily in research and development of products and services that do not lead to significant revenue.
 
It may be difficult for us to implement our strategies for improving internal growth. Some of the markets in which we compete have been flat or declining over the past several years. To address this issue, we are pursuing a number of strategies to improve our internal growth, including:
 
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Risk Factors (continued)
 
  strengthening our presence in selected geographic markets;
     
  allocating research and development funding to products with higher growth prospects;
     
  developing new applications for our technologies;
     
  expanding our service offerings;
     
  continuing key customer initiatives;
     
  combining sales and marketing operations in appropriate markets to compete more effectively;
     
  finding new markets for our products; and
     
  •  continuing the development of commercial tools and infrastructure to increase and support cross-selling opportunities of products and services to take advantage of our depth in product offerings.
 
We may not be able to successfully implement these strategies, and these strategies may not result in the expected growth of our business.
 
Our business is affected by general economic conditions and related uncertainties affecting markets in which we operate. Our business is affected by general economic conditions, both inside and outside the U.S. If the global economy and financial markets, or economic conditions in Europe, the U.S. or other key markets, are unstable, it could adversely affect the business, results of operations and financial condition of the company and its customers, distributors, and suppliers, having the effect of:
 
 
  reducing demand for some of our products;
     
  increasing the rate of order cancellations or delays;
     
  increasing the risk of excess and obsolete inventories;
     
  increasing pressure on the prices for our products and services; and
     
  creating longer sales cycles and greater difficulty in collecting sales proceeds.
     
For example, recent developments in Europe have created uncertainty with respect to the ability of certain European countries to continue to service their sovereign debt obligations. This debt crisis could result in customers in Europe taking longer to pay for products they have purchased from us, or being unable to pay at all. The continued weakness in world economies makes the strength and timing of any economic recovery uncertain, and there can be no assurance that global economic conditions will not deteriorate further.
 
Demand for some of our products depends on capital spending policies of our customers and on government funding policies. Our customers include pharmaceutical and chemical companies, laboratories, universities, healthcare providers, government agencies and public and private research institutions. Many factors, including public policy spending priorities, available resources and product and economic cycles, have a significant effect on the capital spending policies of these entities.
 
Spending by some of these customers fluctuates based on budget allocations and the timely passage of the annual federal budget. An impasse in federal government budget decisions could lead to substantial delays or reductions in federal spending. In fiscal year 2013, the U.S. Government was unable to reach agreement on budget reduction measures required by the Budget Control Act of 2011. As a result, in early 2013, an enforcement mechanism known as sequestration went into effect, which triggered one year of budget reductions. Despite agreement not to impose similar cuts in fiscal years 2014 and 2015, it is possible that Congress will allow similar cuts to occur again in fiscal year 2016 and beyond.
 
Unless Congress and the Administration take further action, government funding would be reduced for certain of our customers, including those who are dependent on funding from the National Institutes of Health, which would likely have a significant effect on these entities’ spending policies. These policies in turn can have a significant effect on the demand for our products.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Risk Factors (continued)
 
Integrating the Life Technologies businesses into Thermo Fisher’s existing businesses may be more difficult, costly or time consuming than expected and the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the transaction may not be fully realized. The success of the acquisition of Life Technologies, including the realization of anticipated benefits and cost savings, will depend, in part, on our ability to successfully combine the businesses of Thermo Fisher and Life Technologies. The integration may be more difficult, costly or time consuming than expected. It is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of key employees or the disruption of each company’s ongoing businesses or that the alignment of standards, controls, procedures and policies may adversely affect the combined company’s ability to maintain relationships with clients, customers, suppliers and employees or to fully achieve the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the transaction. The loss of key employees could adversely affect our ability to successfully conduct our business in the markets in which Life Technologies operated prior to closing, which could have an adverse effect on our financial results and the value of our common stock. Other potential difficulties of combining the business of Thermo Fisher and Life Technologies include unanticipated issues in integrating manufacturing, logistics, information communications and other systems.
 
If we experience difficulties with the integration process, the anticipated benefits of the transaction may not be realized fully, or may take longer to realize than expected. Integration efforts may also divert management attention and resources. These integration matters could have an adverse effect on the company.
 
As a multinational corporation, we are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could adversely affect our cash flows and results of operations. International markets contribute a substantial portion of our revenues, and we intend to continue expanding our presence in these regions. The exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates takes on different forms. International revenues and costs are subject to the risk that fluctuations in exchange rates could adversely affect our reported revenues and profitability when translated into U.S. dollars for financial reporting purposes. These fluctuations could also adversely affect the demand for products and services provided by us. As a multinational corporation, our businesses occasionally invoice third-party customers in currencies other than the one in which they primarily do business (the “functional currency”). Movements in the invoiced currency relative to the functional currency could adversely impact our cash flows and our results of operations. Should our international sales grow, exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates could have a larger effect on our financial results. In 2013, currency translation had an unfavorable effect of $36 million on the revenues of our continuing operations due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies in which the company sells products and services, and in 2014, currency translation had an unfavorable effect on revenues of our continuing operations of $60 million. For 2015, the company is expecting a significant negative impact on revenues and operating income due to the stronger U.S. dollar.
 
Healthcare reform legislation could adversely impact us. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could have an adverse impact on us. Some of the potential consequences, such as a reduction in governmental support of healthcare services or adverse changes to the delivery or pricing of healthcare services or products or mandated benefits, may cause healthcare-industry participants to purchase fewer of our products and services or to reduce the prices they are willing to pay for our products or services.
 
Our inability to protect our intellectual property could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, third parties may claim that we infringe their intellectual property, and we could suffer significant litigation or licensing expense as a result. We place considerable emphasis on obtaining patent and trade secret protection for significant new technologies, products and processes because of the length of time and expense associated with bringing new products through the development process and into the marketplace. Our success depends in part on our ability to develop patentable products and obtain and enforce patent protection for our products both in the United States and in other countries. We own numerous U.S. and foreign patents, and we intend to file additional applications, as appropriate, for patents covering our products. Patents may not be issued for any pending or future patent applications owned by or licensed to us, and the claims allowed under any issued patents may not be sufficiently broad to protect our technology. Any issued patents owned by or licensed to us may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, and the rights under these patents may not provide us with competitive advantages. In addition, competitors may design around our technology or develop competing technologies. Intellectual property rights may also be unavailable or limited in some foreign countries, which could make it easier for competitors to capture increased market position. We could incur substantial costs to defend ourselves in suits brought against us or in suits in which we may assert our patent rights against others. An unfavorable outcome of any such litigation could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Risk Factors (continued)

We also rely on trade secrets and proprietary know-how with which we seek to protect our products, in part, by confidentiality agreements with our collaborators, employees and consultants. These agreements may be breached and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently developed by our competitors.
 
Third parties may assert claims against us to the effect that we are infringing on their intellectual property rights. With our acquisition of Life Technologies, we became party to several lawsuits in which plaintiffs claim we infringe their intellectual property (Note 10). We could incur substantial costs and diversion of management resources in defending these claims, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, parties making these claims could secure a judgment awarding substantial damages, as well as injunctive or other equitable relief, which could effectively block our ability to make, use, sell, distribute, or market our products and services in the United States or abroad. In the event that a claim relating to intellectual property is asserted against us, or third parties not affiliated with us hold pending or issued patents that relate to our products or technology, we may seek licenses to such intellectual property or challenge those patents. However, we may be unable to obtain these licenses on commercially reasonable terms, if at all, and our challenge of the patents may be unsuccessful. Our failure to obtain the necessary licenses or other rights could prevent the sale, manufacture, or distribution of our products and, therefore, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Changes in governmental regulations may reduce demand for our products or increase our expenses. We compete in many markets in which we and our customers must comply with federal, state, local and international regulations, such as environmental, health and safety and food and drug regulations. We develop, configure and market our products to meet customer needs created by those regulations. Any significant change in regulations could reduce demand for our products or increase our expenses. For example, many of our instruments are marketed to the pharmaceutical industry for use in discovering and developing drugs. Changes in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s regulation of the drug discovery and development process could have an adverse effect on the demand for these products.
 
If our security products do not operate as designed and fail to detect explosives or radiation, we could be exposed to product liability and related claims for which we may not have adequate insurance coverage. Products currently or previously sold by our environmental and process instruments and radiation measurement and security instruments businesses include fixed and portable instruments used for chemical, radiation and trace explosives detection. These products are used in airports, embassies, cargo facilities, border crossings and other high-threat facilities for the detection and prevention of terrorist acts. If any of these products were to malfunction, it is possible that explosive or radioactive material could fail to be detected by our product, which could lead to product liability claims. There are also many other factors beyond our control that could lead to liability claims, such as the reliability and competence of the customers’ operators and the training of such operators. Any such product liability claims brought against us could be significant and any adverse determination may result in liabilities in excess of our insurance coverage. Although we carry product liability insurance, we cannot be certain that our current insurance will be sufficient to cover these claims or that it can be maintained on acceptable terms, if at all.
 
Our inability to complete pending acquisitions or to successfully integrate any new or previous acquisitions could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our business strategy includes the acquisition of technologies and businesses that complement or augment our existing products and services. Certain acquisitions may be difficult to complete for a number of reasons, including the need for antitrust and/or other regulatory approvals. Any acquisition we may complete may be made at a substantial premium over the fair value of the net identifiable assets of the acquired company. Further, we may not be able to integrate acquired businesses successfully into our existing businesses, make such businesses profitable, or realize anticipated cost savings or synergies, if any, from these acquisitions, which could adversely affect our business.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Risk Factors (continued)

Moreover, we have acquired many companies and businesses. As a result of these acquisitions, we recorded significant goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets (primarily tradenames) on our balance sheet, which amount to approximately $18.84 billion and $1.30 billion, respectively, as of December 31, 2014. In addition, we have definite-lived intangible assets totaling $14.11 billion as of December 31, 2014. We assess the realizability of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually as well as whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that these assets may be impaired. We assess the realizability of definite-lived intangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that these assets may be impaired. These events or circumstances would generally include operating losses or a significant decline in earnings associated with the acquired business or asset. Our ability to realize the value of the goodwill and intangible assets will depend on the future cash flows of these businesses. These cash flows in turn depend in part on how well we have integrated these businesses. If we are not able to realize the value of the goodwill and intangible assets, we may be required to incur material charges relating to the impairment of those assets.
 
We are subject to laws and regulations governing government contracts, and failure to address these laws and regulations or comply with government contracts could harm our business by leading to a reduction in revenue associated with these customers. We have agreements relating to the sale of our products to government entities and, as a result, we are subject to various statutes and regulations that apply to companies doing business with the government. The laws governing government contracts differ from the laws governing private contracts and government contracts may contain pricing terms and conditions that are not applicable to private contracts. We are also subject to investigation for compliance with the regulations governing government contracts. A failure to comply with these regulations could result in suspension of these contracts, criminal, civil and administrative penalties or debarment.
 
Because we compete directly with certain of our larger customers and product suppliers, our results of operations could be adversely affected in the short term if these customers or suppliers abruptly discontinue or significantly modify their relationship with us. Our largest customer in the laboratory products business is also a significant competitor. Our business may be harmed in the short term if our competitive relationship in the marketplace with certain of our large customers results in a discontinuation of their purchases from us. In addition, we manufacture products that compete directly with products that we source from third-party suppliers. We also source competitive products from multiple suppliers. Our business could be adversely affected in the short term if any of our large third-party suppliers abruptly discontinues selling products to us.
 
Because we rely heavily on third-party package-delivery services, a significant disruption in these services or significant increases in prices may disrupt our ability to ship products, increase our costs and lower our profitability. We ship a significant portion of our products to our customers through independent package delivery companies, such as Federal Express in the U.S. and DHL in Europe. We also maintain a small fleet of vehicles dedicated to the delivery of our products and ship our products through other carriers, including national and regional trucking firms, overnight carrier services and the U.S. Postal Service. If one or more of these third-party package-delivery providers were to experience a major work stoppage, preventing our products from being delivered in a timely fashion or causing us to incur additional shipping costs we could not pass on to our customers, our costs could increase and our relationships with certain of our customers could be adversely affected. In addition, if one or more of these third-party package-delivery providers were to increase prices, and we were not able to find comparable alternatives or make adjustments in our delivery network, our profitability could be adversely affected.
 
We are required to comply with a wide variety of laws and regulations, and are subject to regulation by various federal, state and foreign agencies. For example, some of our operations are subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and similar international agencies. These regulations govern a wide variety of product activities, from design and development to labeling, manufacturing, promotion, sales and distribution. If we fail to comply with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s regulations or those of similar international agencies, we may have to recall products and/or cease their manufacture and distribution, which would increase our costs and reduce our revenues.
 
We are also subject to a variety of federal, state, local and international laws and regulations that govern, among other things, the importation and exportation of products, the handling, transportation and manufacture of substances that could be classified as hazardous, and our business practices in the U.S. and abroad such as anti-corruption and anti-competition laws. A failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in criminal, civil and administrative penalties.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Risk Factors (continued)

Regulations related to “conflict minerals” may cause us to incur additional expenses and could limit the supply and increase the cost of certain metals used in manufacturing our products. In 2012 the SEC adopted a rule requiring disclosures by public companies of specified minerals, known as conflict minerals, that are necessary to the functionality or production of products manufactured or contracted to be manufactured. The rule requires an annual disclosure report to be filed, and requires companies to perform due diligence and disclose and report whether or not such minerals originate from the Democratic Republic of Congo or an adjoining country. The rule could affect sourcing at competitive prices and availability in sufficient quantities of certain minerals used in the manufacture of our products, including tantalum, tin, gold and tungsten. The number of suppliers who provide conflict-free minerals may be limited. In addition, there may be material costs associated with complying with the disclosure requirements, such as costs related to determining the source of certain minerals used in our products, as well as costs of possible changes to products, processes, or sources of supply as a consequence of such verification activities. As our supply chain is complex, we may not be able to sufficiently verify the origins of the relevant minerals used in our products through the due diligence procedures that we undertake, which may harm our reputation. In addition, we may encounter challenges to satisfy those customers who require that all of the components of our products be certified as conflict-free, which could place us at a competitive disadvantage if we are unable to do so.
 
Our business could be adversely affected by disruptions at our sites. We rely upon our manufacturing operations to produce many of the products we sell and our warehouse facilities to store products, pending sale. Any significant disruption of those operations for any reason, such as strikes or other labor unrest, power interruptions, fire or other events beyond our control could adversely affect our sales and customer relationships and therefore adversely affect our business. We have significant operations in California, near major earthquake faults, which makes us susceptible to earthquake risk. Although most of our raw materials are available from a number of potential suppliers, our operations also depend upon our ability to obtain raw materials at reasonable prices. If we are unable to obtain the materials we need at a reasonable price, we may not be able to produce certain of our products or we may not be able to produce certain of these products at a marketable price, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
 
Fluctuations in our effective tax rate may adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows. As a global company, we are subject to taxation in numerous countries, states and other jurisdictions. In preparing our financial statements, we record the amount of tax that is payable in each of the countries, states and other jurisdictions in which we operate. Our future effective tax rate, however, may be lower or higher than experienced in the past due to numerous factors, including a change in the mix of our profitability from country to country, changes in accounting for income taxes and recently enacted and future changes in tax laws in jurisdictions in which we operate. Any of these factors could cause us to experience an effective tax rate significantly different from previous periods or our current expectations, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows.
 
We may incur unexpected costs from increases in fuel and raw material prices, which could reduce our earnings and cash flow. Our primary commodity exposures are for fuel, petroleum-based resins and steel. While we may seek to minimize the impact of price increases through higher prices to customers and various cost-saving measures, our earnings and cash flows could be adversely affected in the event these measures are insufficient to cover our costs.
 
Unforeseen problems with the implementation and maintenance of our information systems could have an adverse effect on our operations. As a part of our ongoing effort to upgrade our current information systems, we periodically implement new enterprise resource planning software and other software applications to manage certain of our business operations. As we implement and add functionality, problems could arise that we have not foreseen. Such problems could adversely impact our ability to provide quotes, take customer orders and otherwise run our business in a timely manner. In addition, if our new systems fail to provide accurate pricing and cost data our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.
 
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Risk Factors (continued)

We also rely on our technology infrastructure, among other functions, to interact with suppliers, sell our products and services, fulfill orders and bill, collect and make payments, ship products, provide services and support to customers, track customers, fulfill contractual obligations and otherwise conduct business. Our systems may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from natural disasters, power loss, telecommunication failures, terrorist attacks, computer viruses, computer denial-of-service attacks, unauthorized access to customer or employee data or company trade secrets, and other attempts to harm our systems. When we upgrade or change systems, we may suffer interruptions in service, loss of data or reduced functionality. Certain of our systems are not redundant, and our disaster recovery planning is not sufficient for every eventuality. Despite any precautions we may take, such problems could result in, among other consequences, interruptions in our services, which could harm our reputation and financial results.
 
Our debt may restrict our investment opportunities or limit our activities. As of December 31, 2014, we had approximately $14.56 billion in outstanding indebtedness. In addition, we have a revolving credit facility that provides for up to $2.00 billion of unsecured multi-currency revolving credit. We may also obtain additional long-term debt and lines of credit to meet future financing needs, which would have the effect of increasing our total leverage.
 
Our leverage could have negative consequences, including increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions, limiting our ability to obtain additional financing and limiting our ability to acquire new products and technologies through strategic acquisitions.
 
Our ability to make scheduled payments, refinance our obligations or obtain additional financing will depend on our future operating performance and on economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow to meet our obligations. If we are unable to service our debt, refinance our existing debt or obtain additional financing, we may be forced to delay strategic acquisitions, capital expenditures or research and development expenditures.
 
Additionally, the agreements governing our debt require that we maintain certain financial ratios, and contain affirmative and negative covenants that restrict our activities by, among other limitations, limiting our ability to incur additional indebtedness, make investments, create liens, sell assets and enter into transactions with affiliates. The covenants in our revolving credit facility and the term credit facility that we entered into to partially finance the Life Technologies acquisition include a total debt-to-EBITDA ratio and an interest coverage ratio. Specifically, the company has agreed that, so long as any lender has any commitment under either facility, or any loan or other obligation is outstanding under either facility, or any letter of credit is outstanding under the revolving credit facility, it will not permit (as the following terms are defined in the facility) the Consolidated Leverage Ratio (the ratio of consolidated Indebtedness to Consolidated EBITDA) as at the last day of any fiscal quarter to be greater than 4.5 to 1.0 until February 2015 and decreasing, based on the passage of time, to 3.5 to 1.0, by August 2015 or the Consolidated Interest Coverage Ratio (the ratio of Consolidated EBITDA to Consolidated Interest Expense) to be less than 3.0 to 1.0.
 
Our ability to comply with these financial restrictions and covenants is dependent on our future performance, which is subject to prevailing economic conditions and other factors, including factors that are beyond our control such as foreign exchange rates and interest rates. Our failure to comply with any of these restrictions or covenants may result in an event of default under the applicable debt instrument, which could permit acceleration of the debt under that instrument and require us to prepay that debt before its scheduled due date. Also, an acceleration of the debt under certain of our debt instruments would trigger an event of default under other of our debt instruments.
 
Item 1B.         Unresolved Staff Comments
 
Not applicable.
 
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Item 2.            Properties
 
The location and general character of our principal properties by segment are as follows:
 
Life Sciences Solutions
 
We own approximately 2.1 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, New York, Maryland and Illinois within the U.S., and in the U.K., Lithuania and New Zealand. We lease approximately 2.5 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, Texas, Utah, Massachusetts and Maryland within the U.S., and in Singapore, Germany, China, Netherlands and India, under various leases that expire between 2015 and 2028.
 
Analytical Instruments
 
We own approximately 1.7 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, and Minnesota within the U.S., and in Germany, Italy and Switzerland. We lease approximately1.6 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in Texas, Massachusetts, California, Tennessee, Illinois, Pennsylvania and Florida within the U.S., and in China, Germany, the U.K., Australia and Japan, under various leases that expire between 2015 and 2029.
 
Specialty Diagnostics
 
We own approximately 2.1 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in Virginia, Kansas, California and New Hampshire within the U.S., and in Sweden, Germany, the U.K. and Switzerland. We lease approximately 1.6 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, Kansas, Michigan and Wisconsin within the U.S., and in Finland, China, the U.K., France and Germany under various leases that expire between 2015 and 2024.
 
Laboratory Products and Services
 
We own approximately 6.1 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory, warehouse and production space, principally in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, Illinois, Ohio, Georgia and Texas within the U.S., and in the U.K., Germany, Canada, Denmark and France. We lease approximately 3.5 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory, warehouse and production space, principally in California, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Tennessee, North Carolina, Massachusetts and Illinois, within the U.S. and in Australia, Germany, the U.K., Mexico, Singapore, China, New Zealand, and Japan under various leases that expire between 2015 and 2038.
 
Corporate Headquarters
 
We lease approximately 100,000 square feet of office space in Massachusetts under leases that expire between 2015 and 2016.
 
We believe that all of the facilities that we are currently using are in good condition and are suitable and adequate to meet our current needs. If we are unable to renew any of the leases that are due to expire in 2015 or 2016, we believe that suitable replacement properties are available on commercially reasonable terms.
 
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Item 3.            Legal Proceedings
 
There are various lawsuits and claims against the company involving product liability, intellectual property, employment, and contractual issues. See “Note 10 to our Consolidated Financial Statements – Commitments and Contingencies.”
 
Item 4.            Mine Safety Disclosures
 
Not applicable.
 
PART II

Item 5.
 
Market Price of Common Stock
 
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol TMO. The following table sets forth the high and low sale prices of the company’s common stock for 2014 and 2013, as reported in the consolidated transaction reporting system.
 
   
2014
   
2013
 
   
High
   
Low
   
High
   
Low
 
                         
First Quarter
  $ 127.63     $ 109.08     $ 78.04     $ 64.54  
Second Quarter
    123.37       112.02       89.50       75.27  
Third Quarter
    127.21       116.36       94.74       84.41  
Fourth Quarter
    129.77       107.33       111.44       89.71  

The closing price of the company’s common stock on December 31, 2014 and 2013, was $125.29 and $111.35, respectively.
 
The following table sets forth the per share dividends declared on the company’s common stock for 2014 and 2013.
 
      2014       2013   
                 
First Quarter
  $ 0.15     $ 0.15  
Second Quarter
    0.15       0.15  
Third Quarter
    0.15       0.15  
Fourth Quarter
    0.15       0.15  

Our payment of dividends in the future will be determined by our Board of Directors and will depend upon our earnings, financial condition and other factors.
 
Holders of Common Stock
 
As of January 31, 2015, the company had 4,713 holders of record of its common stock. This does not include holdings in street or nominee names.
 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
There was no share repurchase activity for the company’s fourth quarter of 2014. On November 8, 2012, the Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $1.00 billion of the company’s common stock beginning January 1, 2013. At December 31, 2014, $910 million was available for future repurchases of the company’s common stock under this authorization.
 
 
25

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Item 6.            Selected Financial Data

(In millions except per share amounts)
 
2014 (a)
   
2013 (b)
   
2012 (c)
   
2011 (d)
   
2010 (e)
 
                               
Statement of Income Data
                             
Revenues
  $ 16,889.6     $ 13,090.3     $ 12,509.9     $ 11,558.8     $ 10,393.1  
Operating Income
    2,503.0       1,609.6       1,482.1       1,250.8       1,188.1  
Income from Continuing Operations
    1,895.5       1,279.1       1,258.4       1,023.4       986.1  
Net Income
    1,894.4       1,273.3       1,177.9       1,329.9       1,035.6  
Earnings per Share from Continuing
     Operations:
                                       
Basic
    4.76       3.55       3.46       2.69       2.45  
Diluted
    4.71       3.50       3.43       2.66       2.41  
Earnings per Share:
                                       
Basic
    4.76       3.53       3.24       3.49       2.57  
Diluted
    4.71       3.48       3.21       3.46       2.53  
                                         
Cash Dividends Declared per Share
    .60       .60       .54              
                                         
Balance Sheet Data
                                       
Working Capital
  $ 1,190.0     $ 6,754.7     $ 2,741.5     $ 1,708.8     $ 2,425.2  
Total Assets
    42,852.1       31,863.4       27,444.6       26,833.7       21,349.4  
Long-term Obligations
    12,351.6       9,499.6       7,031.2       5,755.2       2,031.3  
Shareholders' Equity
    20,548.1       16,856.1       15,464.7       15,038.1       15,361.0  
 
The caption “restructuring and other costs/income” in the notes below includes amounts charged to cost of revenues, primarily for the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition, and charges/credits to selling, general and administrative expense primarily for significant acquisition transaction costs.
 
(a)   Reflects $139.9 million of pre-tax income from gains on sale of businesses, net of restructuring and other costs; and after-tax loss of $1.1 million related to the company’s discontinued operations. Also reflects the acquisition of Life Technologies Corporation, in February 2014.
(b)   Reflects $179.8 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs; after-tax loss of $5.8 million related to the company’s discontinued operations; and the repurchase of $89.8 million of the company’s common stock. Also reflects the issuance of $3.20 billion of long-term debt in December 2013 to fund the acquisition of Life Technologies in February 2014.
(c)   Reflects $150.2 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs; after-tax loss of $80.5 million related to the company’s discontinued operations; and the repurchase of $1.15 billion of the company’s common stock.
(d)   Reflects $230.6 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs; after-tax income of $306.5 million related to the company’s discontinued operations; and the repurchase of $1.34 billion of the company’s common stock. Also reflects the acquisitions of Dionex Corporation, in May 2011, and the Phadia group, in August 2011.
(e)   Reflects $76.4 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs; after-tax income of $49.5 million related to the company’s discontinued operations; and the repurchase of $1.01 billion of the company’s common stock.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

 
Reference is made throughout this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations to Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which begin on page F-1 of this report.
 
Overview
 
    The company develops, manufactures and sells a broad range of products that are sold worldwide. The company expands the product lines and services it offers by developing and commercializing its own technologies and by making strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses. The company’s continuing operations fall into four business segments (see Note 3): Life Sciences Solutions, Analytical Instruments, Specialty Diagnostics and Laboratory Products and Services.
 
Recent Acquisitions and Divestitures
 
The company’s strategy is to augment internal growth at existing businesses with complementary acquisitions such as its 2014 acquisition of Life Technologies.
 
On February 3, 2014, the company completed the acquisition of Life Technologies Corporation for a total purchase price of $15.30 billion, net of cash acquired, including the assumption of $2.28 billion of debt. The company issued debt and common stock in late 2013 and early 2014 to partially fund the acquisition discussed below under the caption “Liquidity and Capital Resources”. Life Technologies was integrated into the Life Sciences Solutions segment and provides innovative products and services to customers conducting scientific research and genetic analysis, as well as those in applied markets, such as forensics and food safety testing. Life Technologies’ revenues totaled $3.87 billion in 2013.
 
On March 21, 2014, the company sold its legacy sera and media, gene modulation and magnetic beads businesses to GE Healthcare for $1.06 billion, net of cash divested. The sale of these businesses resulted in a pre-tax gain of approximately $761 million included in restructuring and other costs (income), net. The businesses fell principally in the Life Sciences Solutions segment. Divestiture of these businesses was a condition to obtaining antitrust approval for the Life Technologies acquisition. Revenues and operating income of the businesses sold were approximately $250 million and $64 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2013 and $61 million and $12 million, respectively, in 2014 through the date of sale.
 
On August 15, 2014, the company sold its Cole-Parmer specialty channel business, part of the Laboratory Products and Services segment, for $480 million in cash, net of cash divested. The sale of this business resulted in a pre-tax gain of approximately $134 million, included in restructuring and other costs (income), net. Revenues and operating income of the business sold were approximately $232 million and $43 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2013 and $149 million and $28 million, respectively, in 2014 through the date of sale.
 
Overview of Results of Operations and Liquidity
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2014
   
2013
 
                         
Revenues
                       
Life Sciences Solutions
  $ 4,195.7       24.8 %   $ 712.5       5.4 %
Analytical Instruments
    3,252.2       19.3 %     3,154.2       24.1 %
Specialty Diagnostics
    3,343.6       19.8 %     3,191.7       24.4 %
Laboratory Products
      and Services
    6,601.5       39.1 %     6,398.8       48.9 %
Eliminations
    (503.4 )     (3.0 )%     (366.9 )     (2.8 )%
                                 
    $ 16,889.6       100 %   $ 13,090.3       100 %
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Overview of Results of Operations and Liquidity (continued)
 
    Sales in 2014 were $16.89 billion, an increase of $3.80 billion from 2013. Sales increased $3.31 billion due to acquisitions, net of divestitures. The unfavorable effects of currency translation resulted in a decrease in revenues of $60 million in 2014. Aside from the effects of currency translation and acquisitions/divestitures, revenues increased $549 million (4%) primarily due to increased demand. Demand from biopharma customers remained strong. Sales to customers in healthcare and industrial markets grew moderately while sales to academic and government markets grew modestly in 2014. Sales growth was strong in Europe and moderate in North America and Asia. Revenues and operating income of the company’s non-U.S. operations are translated into U.S. dollars to report consolidated results. Based on weakening of currency exchange rates against the U.S. dollar that occurred in late 2014 and early 2015, the company currently expects that there will be a significant adverse effect on reported amounts of revenues and operating income in 2015 as a result of the stronger U.S. dollar.
 
In 2014, total company operating income and operating income margin were $2.50 billion and 14.8%, respectively, compared with $1.61 billion and 12.3%, respectively, in 2013. The increase in operating income and operating income margin was primarily due to net gains of $895 million on the sale of businesses, inclusion of Life Technologies’ results from the date of acquisition and, to a lesser extent, productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases. These increases were offset in part by $450 million of charges associated with the acquisition, as discussed below, as well as $569 million of higher amortization expenses, also primarily related to the acquisition. The company’s references throughout this discussion to productivity improvements generally refer to improved cost efficiencies from its Practical Process Improvement (PPI) business system, reduced costs resulting from global sourcing initiatives, a lower cost structure following restructuring actions, including headcount reductions and consolidation of facilities, and low cost region manufacturing.
 
The company’s effective tax rates were 9.2% and 3.1% in 2014 and 2013, respectively. The 2014 provision for income taxes includes $390 million related to gains on the sales of businesses. Aside from the discrete tax on the gains, the company had a benefit from income taxes primarily due to restructuring and other costs associated with the acquisition of Life Technologies as well as an increase in the expected benefit from foreign tax credits. In 2014, non-U.S. subsidiaries of the company made cash and deemed distributions to the company’s U.S. operations which resulted in no net tax cost. As a result of these distributions, the company generated U.S. foreign tax credits of $172 million, offset in part by additional U.S. income taxes of $55 million on the related foreign income. The net result of these transactions favorably affected the income tax provision by $117 million and reduced the company’s effective tax rate by 5.6 percentage points in 2014. The federal tax credit for 2014 research and development activities favorably affected the tax provision in 2014 by $20.1 million, or 1.0 percentage point. In 2014, the company recognized a discrete tax benefit of $15.4 million, or 0.7 percentage points, attributable to tax rulings related to non-U.S. subsidiaries. Due primarily to the non-deductibility of intangible asset amortization, the company’s cash payments (net of refunds) for income taxes were higher than its income tax expense for financial reporting purposes and totaled $586 million and $230 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively. The effective tax rate in both periods was also affected by relatively significant earnings in lower tax jurisdictions. The tax provision in the 2014 period was favorably affected by $5.5 million, or 0.3 percentage points, as a result of adjustments to deferred tax balances due to changes in tax rates. The U.S. Congress has not extended the tax credit for research and development activities in 2015 as of February 26, 2015.
 
In 2013, non-U.S. subsidiaries of the company made cash and deemed distributions to the company’s U.S. operations which resulted in no net tax cost. As a result of these distributions, the company generated U.S. foreign tax credits of $160 million offset by additional U.S. income taxes of $56 million on the related foreign income. The net result of these transactions favorably affected the income tax provision by $104 million and reduced the company’s effective tax rate by 7.9 percentage points in 2013. In addition, the effective tax rate in 2013 was also reduced by the U.S. Congress’ renewal in January 2013 of a tax credit for research and development activities for 2012 and 2013 and, to a lesser extent, financing costs associated with the acquisition of Life Technologies that are deductible in the U.S. The federal tax credit for 2012 and 2013 research and development activities favorably affected the tax provision in 2013 by $15.4 million, or 1.2 percentage points. The tax provision in the 2013 period was unfavorably affected by $5.4 million, or 0.4 percentage points, as a result of adjustments to deferred tax balances due to changes in tax rates and audit settlements.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Overview of Results of Operations and Liquidity (continued)
 
    The company expects its effective tax rate in 2015 will be less than 3% based on currently forecasted rates of profitability in the countries in which the company conducts business.
 
Income from continuing operations increased to $1.90 billion in 2014, from $1.28 billion in 2013. The increase in operating income in the 2014 period (discussed above) was offset in part by an increase in the income tax provision in the 2014 period (discussed above) and an increase in interest expense of $218 million as a result of debt issued and assumed in connection with the acquisition of Life Technologies.
 
During 2014, the company’s cash flow from operations totaled $2.62 billion compared with $2.01 billion for 2013. The increase resulted from cash flow from the acquired Life Technologies operations and a lower investment in working capital items, principally due to income tax refunds and the timing of tax payments, offset in part by cash disbursements totaling $325 million related to the acquisition of Life Technologies, including severance obligations, third-party transaction/integration costs and monetizing certain equity awards held by Life Technologies employees at the date of acquisition.
 
    As of December 31, 2014, the company’s short-term debt totaled $2.21 billion, including $1.21 billion of senior notes, due in the first half of 2015 and $1.00 billion of minimum payments due in the next twelve months on the company’s term loan. The company has a revolving credit facility with a bank group that provides unsecured multi-currency revolving credit. In February 2015, the maximum capacity of this facility was increased from $1.50 billion to $2.00 billion. If the company borrows under this facility, it intends to leave undrawn an amount equivalent to outstanding commercial paper to provide a source of funds in the event that commercial paper markets are not available. As of December 31, 2014, no borrowings were outstanding under the company’s revolving credit facility, although available capacity was reduced by approximately $59 million as a result of outstanding letters of credit.
 
The company believes that its existing cash and short-term investments of $1.35 billion as of December 31, 2014 and its future cash flow from operations together with available borrowing capacity under its revolving credit agreement will be sufficient to meet the cash requirements of its existing businesses for the foreseeable future, including at least the next 24 months.
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
The company’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and results of operations is based upon its financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and related disclosure of contingent liabilities. On an on-going basis, management evaluates its estimates, including those related to bad debts, inventories, business combinations, intangible assets and goodwill, equity investments, sales returns, warranty obligations, income taxes, contingencies and litigation, pension costs and stock-based compensation. Management believes the most complex and sensitive judgments, because of their significance to the consolidated financial statements, result primarily from the need to make estimates about the effects of matters that are inherently uncertain. Management bases its estimates on historical experience, current market and economic conditions and other assumptions that management believes are reasonable. The results of these estimates form the basis for judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities where the values are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates (continued)
 
    The company believes the following represent its critical accounting policies and estimates used in the preparation of its financial statements:
 
  (a)
Accounts Receivable
     
   
The company maintains allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of its customers to pay amounts due. Such allowances totaled $74 million at December 31, 2014. The company estimates the amount of customer receivables that are uncollectible based on the age of the receivable, the creditworthiness of the customer and any other information that is relevant to the judgment. If the financial condition of the company’s customers were to deteriorate, reducing their ability to make payments, additional allowances would be required.
     
  (b) Inventories
     
   
The company writes down its inventories for estimated excess quantities and obsolescence based on differences between the cost and estimated net realizable value taking into consideration usage in the preceding 12 months, expected demand and any other information that is relevant to the judgment. If ultimate usage or demand varies significantly from expected usage or demand, additional writedowns may be required.
     
  (c) Intangible Assets and Goodwill
     
    The company uses assumptions and estimates in determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. The determination of the fair value of intangible assets, which represent a significant portion of the purchase price in many of the company’s acquisitions, requires the use of significant judgment with regard to (i) the fair value; and (ii) whether such intangibles are amortizable or non-amortizable and, if the former, the period and the method by which the intangible asset will be amortized. The company estimates the fair value of acquisition-related intangible assets principally based on projections of cash flows that will arise from identifiable intangible assets of acquired businesses. The projected cash flows are discounted to determine the present value of the assets at the dates of acquisition. Definite-lived intangible assets totaled $12.81 billion at December 31, 2014. The company reviews definite-lived intangible assets for impairment when indication of potential impairment exists, such as a significant reduction in cash flows associated with the assets. Actual cash flows arising from a particular intangible asset could vary from projected cash flows which could imply different carrying values from those established at the dates of acquisition and which could result in impairment of such asset.
     
   
The company evaluates goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually and when events occur or circumstances change that may reduce the fair value of the asset below its carrying amount. Events or circumstances that might require an interim evaluation include unexpected adverse business conditions, economic factors, unanticipated technological changes or competitive activities, loss of key personnel and acts by governments and courts. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets totaled $18.84 billion and $1.30 billion, respectively, at December 31, 2014. Estimates of future cash flows require assumptions related to revenue and operating income growth, asset-related expenditures, working capital levels and other factors. Different assumptions from those made in the company’s analysis could materially affect projected cash flows and the company’s evaluation of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment.
     
   
Projections of profitability for 2015 and thereafter and indicated fair values based on peer revenues and earnings trading multiples were sufficient to conclude that no impairment of goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets existed at the end of the tenth fiscal month of 2014, the date of the company’s impairment testing. There can be no assurance, however, that an economic downturn will not materially adversely affect peer trading multiples and the company’s businesses such that they do not achieve their forecasted profitability and these assets become impaired. Should the fair value of the company’s goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets decline because of reduced operating performance, market declines, or other indicators of impairment, or as a result of changes in the discount rate, charges for impairment may be necessary.
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates (continued)
 
   
With the completion of the Life Technologies acquisition in February 2014, the company established a new segment and reporting unit called Life Sciences Solutions. This new segment consists of the majority of the former Life Technologies businesses and the remaining Thermo Fisher biosciences businesses following anti-trust required divestitures in March 2014. Because this segment consists primarily of the acquired business, the book value of which equaled its fair value as of the acquisition date, the company believes minimal cushion of fair value over book value existed at that date. During its 2014 goodwill impairment testing, the company determined that the Life Sciences Solutions segment’s cushion of fair value over book value had increased to 9% as of October 31, 2014. Despite this favorable increase, given that the fair value is not substantially in excess of the book value, relatively small decreases in future cash flows from forecasted results or changes in discount rates or other assumptions could result in impairment of goodwill. The key variables that drive the cash flows of the reporting unit are levels of profitability and terminal value growth rate assumptions, as well as the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) rate applied. The estimates used for these assumptions represent management's best estimates, which the company believes are reasonable. These assumptions, however, are subject to uncertainty, including the degree to which the acquired business will grow revenue and profitability levels. The Life Sciences Solutions segment had $7.25 billion of goodwill, and had an overall carrying value of $14.75 billion as of December 31, 2014.
     
  (d)
Other Long-lived Assets
     
   
The company reviews other long-lived assets for impairment when indication of potential impairment exists, such as a significant reduction in cash flows associated with the assets. Other long-lived assets totaled $3.36 billion at December 31, 2014, including $2.43 billion of fixed assets. In testing a long-lived asset for impairment, assumptions are made concerning projected cash flows associated with the asset. Estimates of future cash flows require assumptions related to revenue and operating income growth and asset-related expenditures associated with the asset being reviewed for impairment. Should future cash flows decline significantly from estimated amounts, charges for impairment of other long-lived assets may be necessary.
     
  (e) Revenues
     
   
In instances where the company sells equipment with a related installation obligation, the company generally recognizes revenue related to the equipment when title passes. The company recognizes revenue related to the installation when it performs the installation. The allocation of revenue between the equipment and the installation is based on relative selling price at the time of sale. Should the relative value of either the equipment or the installation change, the company’s revenue recognition would be affected.
     
   
In instances where the company sells equipment with customer-specified acceptance criteria, the company must assess whether it can demonstrate adherence to the acceptance criteria prior to the customer’s acceptance testing to determine the timing of revenue recognition. If the nature of customer-specified acceptance criteria were to change or grow in complexity such that the company could not demonstrate adherence, the company would be required to defer additional revenues upon shipment of its products until completion of customer acceptance testing.
 
 
 
 
 
      
 
 
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates (continued)
 
   
The company’s software license agreements generally include multiple products and services, or “elements.” The company recognizes software license revenue based on the residual method after all elements have either been delivered or vendor specific objective evidence (VSOE) of fair value exists for any undelivered elements. In the event VSOE is not available for any undelivered element, revenue for all elements is deferred until delivery of all elements other than post-contract support is completed. Revenues from software maintenance and support contracts are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract. VSOE of fair value of software maintenance and support is determined based on the price charged for the maintenance and support when sold separately. Revenues from training and consulting services are recognized as services are performed, based on VSOE, which is determined by reference to the price customers pay when the services are sold separately.
     
   
The company records reductions to revenue for estimated product returns by customers. Should a greater or lesser number of products be returned, additional adjustments to revenue may be required.
     
  (f)
Warranty Obligations
     
   
At the time the company recognizes revenue, it provides for the estimated cost of standard product warranties in cost of product revenues based primarily on historical experience and knowledge of any specific warranty problems that indicate projected warranty costs may vary from historical patterns. The liability for standard warranty obligations of the company’s continuing operations totaled $58 million at December 31, 2014. Should product failure rates or the actual cost of correcting product failures vary from estimates, revisions to the estimated warranty liability would be necessary.
     
  (g)
Income Taxes
     
   
In the ordinary course of business there is inherent uncertainty in quantifying the company’s income tax positions. The company assesses income tax positions and records tax benefits for all years subject to examination based upon management’s evaluation of the facts, circumstances and information available at the reporting date. For those tax positions where it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, the company has recorded the largest amount of tax benefit with a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. For those income tax positions where it is not more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, no tax benefit has been recognized in the financial statements. The company’s reserve for these matters totaled $214 million at December 31, 2014. Where applicable, associated interest expense has also been recognized as a component of the provision for income taxes.
     
   
The company operates in numerous countries under many legal forms and, as a result, is subject to the jurisdiction of numerous domestic and non-U.S. tax authorities, as well as to tax agreements and treaties among these governments. Determination of taxable income in any jurisdiction requires the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and the use of estimates and assumptions regarding significant future events, such as the amount, timing and character of deductions, permissible revenue recognition methods under the tax law and the sources and character of income and tax credits. Changes in tax laws, regulations, agreements and treaties, currency exchange restrictions or the company’s level of operations or profitability in each taxing jurisdiction could have an impact upon the amount of current and deferred tax balances and hence the company’s net income.
     
   
The company estimates the degree to which tax assets and loss carryforwards will result in a benefit based on expected profitability by tax jurisdiction, and provides a valuation allowance for tax assets and loss carryforwards that it believes will more likely than not go unused. If it becomes more likely than not that a tax asset or loss carryforward will be used, the company reverses the related valuation allowance. Any such reversals are recorded as a reduction of the company’s tax provision. The company’s tax valuation allowance totaled $116 million at December 31, 2014. Should the company’s actual future taxable income by tax jurisdiction vary from estimates, additional allowances or reversals thereof may be necessary.
     
   
The company provides a liability for future income tax payments in the worldwide tax jurisdictions in which it operates. Should tax return positions that the company expects are sustainable not be sustained upon audit, the company could be required to record an incremental tax provision for such taxes. Should previously unrecognized tax benefits ultimately be sustained, a reduction in the company’s tax provision would result.
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates (continued)
  (h)
 
Contingencies and Litigation
     
   
The company records accruals for various contingencies, including legal proceedings, environmental, workers’ compensation, product, general and auto liabilities, and other claims that arise in the normal course of business. The accruals are based on management’s judgment, historical claims experience, the probability of losses and, where applicable, the consideration of opinions of internal and or external legal counsel and actuarial estimates. Accruals of acquired businesses, including product liability and environmental accruals, were initially recorded at fair value and discounted to their net present value. Additionally, the company records receivables from third-party insurers when recovery has been determined to be probable.
     
  (i)
Pension and Other Retiree Benefits
     
   
Several of the company’s U.S. and non-U.S. subsidiaries sponsor defined benefit pension and other retiree benefit plans. The cost and obligations of these arrangements are calculated using many assumptions to estimate the benefits that the employee earns while working, the amount of which cannot be completely determined until the benefit payments cease. Major assumptions used in the accounting for these employee benefit plans include the discount rate, expected return on plan assets and rate of increase in employee compensation levels. Assumptions are determined based on company data and appropriate market indicators in consultation with third-party actuaries, and are evaluated each year as of the plans’ measurement date. Net periodic pension costs for the company’s pension and other postretirement benefit plans totaled $56 million in 2014. The company’s unfunded benefit obligation totaled $540 million at year-end 2014 (including plan obligations assumed in the acquisition of Life Technologies) compared with $301 million at year-end 2013. Should any of these assumptions change, they would have an effect on net periodic pension costs and the unfunded benefit obligation. For example, a 10% decrease in the discount rate would result in an annual increase in pension and other postretirement benefit expense of approximately $1 million and an increase in the benefit obligation of approximately $108 million.
     
   
As of December 31, 2014, the company expects to contribute between $40 and $60 million to its existing defined benefit pension plans in 2015.
     
  (j)
Stock-based Compensation
     
   
The fair value of most stock options granted by the company is estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. For option grants and restricted stock units that require achievement of both service and market conditions, a lattice model is used to estimate fair value. Use of a valuation model requires management to make certain assumptions with respect to selected model inputs. Management estimates expected volatility based on the historical volatility of the company’s stock. Historical data on exercise patterns is the basis for determining the expected life of an option. The risk-free interest rate is based on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with a remaining term which approximates the expected life assumed at the date of grant. The dividend yield is based on the company’s most recent quarterly dividend rate. Changes in these input variables would affect the amount of expense associated with stock-based compensation. The compensation expense recognized for all stock-based awards is net of estimated forfeitures. The company estimates forfeiture rates based on historical analysis of option forfeitures. If actual forfeitures should vary from estimated forfeitures, adjustments to compensation expense may be required.
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Results of Operations
 
2014 Compared With 2013
 
Continuing Operations
               
Total
   
Currency
   
Acquisitions/
       
(In millions)
 
2014
   
2013
   
Change
   
Translation
   
Divestitures
   
Operations
 
                                     
Revenues
                                   
Life Sciences Solutions
  $ 4,195.7     $ 712.5     $ 3,483.2     $ (0.2 )   $ 3,787.8     $ (304.4 )
Analytical Instruments
    3,252.2       3,154.2       98.0       (29.9 )     15.3       112.6  
Specialty Diagnostics
    3,343.6       3,191.7       151.9       (12.4 )     10.1       154.2  
Laboratory Products
    and Services
    6,601.5       6,398.8       202.7       (16.9 )     (92.5 )     312.1  
Eliminations
    (503.4 )     (366.9 )     (136.5 )     (0.3 )     (410.9 )     274.7  
                                                 
Consolidated Revenues
  $ 16,889.6     $ 13,090.3     $ 3,799.3     $ (59.7 )   $ 3,309.8     $ 549.2  
                                                 
Sales in 2014 were $16.89 billion, an increase of $3.80 billion from 2013. Sales increased $3.31 billion due to acquisitions, net of divestitures. The unfavorable effects of currency translation resulted in a decrease in revenues of $60 million in 2014. Aside from the effects of currency translation and acquisitions/divestitures, revenues increased $549 million (4%) primarily due to increased demand. Demand from biopharma customers remained strong. Sales to customers in healthcare and industrial markets grew moderately while sales to academic and government markets grew modestly in 2014. Sales growth was strong in Europe and moderate in North America and Asia. Revenues and operating income of the company’s non-U.S. operations are translated into U.S. dollars to report consolidated results. Based on weakening of currency exchange rates against the U.S. dollar that occurred in late 2014 and early 2015, the company currently expects that there will be a significant adverse effect on reported amounts of revenues and operating income in 2015 as a result of the stronger U.S. dollar.
 
In 2014, total company operating income and operating income margin were $2.50 billion and 14.8%, respectively, compared with $1.61 billion and 12.3%, respectively, in 2013. The increase in operating income and operating income margin was primarily due to net gains of $895 million on the sale of businesses, inclusion of Life Technologies’ results from the date of acquisition and, to a lesser extent, productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases. These increases were offset in part by $450 million of charges associated with the acquisition, as discussed below, as well as $569 million of higher amortization expenses, also primarily related to the acquisition. The company’s references throughout this discussion to productivity improvements generally refer to improved cost efficiencies from its Practical Process Improvement (PPI) business system, reduced costs resulting from global sourcing initiatives, a lower cost structure following restructuring actions, including headcount reductions and consolidation of facilities, and low cost region manufacturing.
 
In 2014, the company recorded restructuring and other income, net, of $140 million, including net gains on the sale of businesses and real estate of $895 million and $15 million, respectively, offset in part by $328 million of charges to cost of revenues primarily for the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition; $131 million of charges to selling, general and administrative expenses primarily for transaction costs related to the acquisition of Life Technologies; and $29 million of charges for pension settlements. The company incurred $268 million of cash restructuring costs primarily associated with the Life Technologies acquisition including cash compensation to monetize certain equity awards held by Life Technologies employees at the date of acquisition and severance obligations to former executives and employees of Life Technologies. In addition, the company’s other businesses incurred costs for continued headcount reductions and facility consolidations in an effort to streamline operations, including severance at several businesses and abandoned facility expenses at businesses that have been or are being consolidated, including the consolidation of operations within several facilities in the U.S., Europe and Asia (see Note 14).
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
In 2013, the company recorded restructuring and other costs, net, of $180 million, including $29 million of charges to cost of revenues primarily related to the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition and, to a lesser extent, accelerated depreciation on manufacturing assets to be abandoned due to facility consolidations and $74 million of charges to selling, general and administrative expenses primarily consisting of transaction costs related to the acquisition of Life Technologies, changes in estimates of contingent consideration for an acquisition and a charge associated with product liability litigation. The company incurred $78 million of cash restructuring costs primarily for continued headcount reductions and facility consolidations in an effort to streamline operations, including severance at several businesses and abandoned facility expenses at businesses that were being consolidated. The cash costs also included $4 million of transaction expenses related to the agreement to sell its sera and media, gene modulation and magnetic beads businesses (see Note 2).
 
As of February 26, 2015, the company has identified restructuring actions that will result in additional charges of approximately $70 million in 2015 and expects to identify additional actions during 2015 which will be recorded when specified criteria are met, such as abandonment of leased facilities. Approximately half of the additional charges will be incurred in the Life Sciences Solutions segment, with the remainder incurred across the company’s remaining segments. The restructuring projects for which charges were incurred in 2014 are expected to result in annual cost savings of approximately $120 million beginning in part in 2014 and, to a greater extent, in 2015, including $80 million in the Life Sciences Solutions segment, $10 million in the Analytical Instruments segment, $10 million in the Specialty Diagnostics segment and $20 million in the Laboratory Products and Services segment. The restructuring actions for which charges were incurred in 2013 resulted in annual cost savings of approximately $80 million beginning in part in 2013 and to a greater extent in 2014, including $5 million in the Life Sciences Solutions segment, $30 million in the Analytical Instruments segment, $20 million in the Specialty Diagnostics segment and $25 million in the Laboratory Products and Services segment.
 
Segment Results
 
The company’s management evaluates segment operating performance using operating income before certain charges/credits to cost of revenues and selling, general and administrative expenses, principally associated with acquisition-related activities; restructuring and other costs/income including costs arising from facility consolidations such as severance and abandoned lease expense and gains and losses from the sale of real estate and product lines; and amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets. The company also refers to this measure as adjusted operating income. The company uses this measure because it helps management understand and evaluate the segments’ core operating results and facilitate comparison of performance for determining compensation (Note 3). Accordingly, the following segment data is reported on this basis.
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2014
   
2013
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
                 
Life Sciences Solutions
  $ 4,195.7     $ 712.5       489 %
Analytical Instruments
    3,252.2       3,154.2       3 %
Specialty Diagnostics
    3,343.6       3,191.7       5 %
Laboratory Products and Services
    6,601.5       6,398.8       3 %
Eliminations
    (503.4 )     (366.9 )     37 %
                         
Consolidated Revenues
  $ 16,889.6     $ 13,090.3       29 %
                         
Segment Income
                       
Life Sciences Solutions
  $ 1,214.9     $ 169.7       616 %
Analytical Instruments
    581.1       558.7       4 %
Specialty Diagnostics
    916.0       863.7       6 %
Laboratory Products and Services
    982.8       960.4       2 %
                         
Subtotal Reportable Segments
    3,694.8       2,552.5       45 %
                         
Cost of Revenues Charges
    (327.6 )     (28.6 )        
Selling, General and Administrative Charges, Net
    (130.7 )     (73.5 )        
Restructuring and Other Income (Costs), Net
    598.2       (77.7 )        
Amortization of Acquisition-related Intangible Assets
    (1,331.7 )     (763.1 )        
                         
Consolidated Operating Income
  $ 2,503.0     $ 1,609.6       56 %
                         
Reportable Segments Operating Income Margin
    21.9 %     19.5 %        
                         
Consolidated Operating Income Margin
    14.8 %     12.3 %        
 
Income from the company’s reportable segments increased 45% to $3.69 billion in 2014 due primarily to the acquisition of Life Technologies and to a lesser extent, productivity improvements, net of inflationary costs increases, offset in part by strategic growth investments.
 
   Life Sciences Solutions
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2014
   
2013
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 4,195.7     $ 712.5       489 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    29.0 %     23.8 %  
5.2pt
 
                         
Sales in the Life Sciences Solutions segment increased $3.48 billion to $4.20 billion in 2014 primarily due to the acquisition of Life Technologies, net of divestitures. Had the acquisition of Life Technologies been completed at the beginning of 2013, pro forma revenues for the 2014 period would have decreased $38 million compared to pro forma 2013 revenues, including a decrease of $151 million due to dispositions, net of other acquisitions and a decrease of $45 million due to the unfavorable effects of currency translation, offset in part by an increase of $158 million (4%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses. The increase in pro forma revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand for biosciences and bioprocess production products, offset in part by lower licensing revenues.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
Operating income margin was 29.0% in 2014 compared to 23.8% in 2013. The increase resulted primarily from higher operating margins in Life Technologies’ businesses relative to the segment’s legacy operations and, to a lesser extent, productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases. The company expects the segment’s operating income margin in the first quarter of 2015 will be lower than the 29.3% reported in the first quarter of 2014. This is due to excluding the results of Life Technologies prior to the February 3, 2014 acquisition date. Results for January commonly have a lower margin rate than results for the balance of the quarter, due to the phasing of revenue and costs.
 
   Analytical Instruments
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2014
   
2013
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 3,252.2     $ 3,154.2       3 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    17.9 %     17.7 %  
0.2pt
 
                         
Sales in the Analytical Instruments segment increased $98 million to $3.25 billion in 2014. Sales increased $113 million (4%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses and $15 million due to acquisitions, offset in part by a decrease of $30 million due to the unfavorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand for chromatography and mass spectrometry instruments and, to a lesser extent, environmental instruments. These increases were offset in part by modestly lower sales of chemical analysis products due primarily to softness in certain commodity markets such as minerals.
 
Operating income margin was 17.9% in 2014 compared to 17.7% in 2013. The increase resulted primarily from productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases and, to a lesser extent, profit from favorable sales mix. The increases were offset in part by strategic growth investments.
 
   Specialty Diagnostics
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2014
   
2013
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 3,343.6     $ 3,191.7       5 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    27.4 %     27.1 %  
0.3pt
 
                         
Sales in the Specialty Diagnostics segment increased $152 million to $3.34 billion in 2014. Sales increased $154 million (5%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses and $10 million due to an acquisition net of a divestiture, offset in part by a decrease of $12 million due to the unfavorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand for immunodiagnostics products, products sold through the segment’s healthcare market channel and, to a lesser extent, clinical diagnostics products.
 
Operating income margin was 27.4% in 2014 and 27.1% in 2013. The increase resulted primarily from favorable sales mix and, to a lesser extent, productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases. These increases were offset in part by strategic growth investments.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
   Laboratory Products and Services
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2014
   
2013
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 6,601.5     $ 6,398.8       3 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    14.9 %     15.0 %  
(0.1)pt
 
                         
Sales in the Laboratory Products and Services segment increased $203 million to $6.60 billion in 2014. Sales increased $312 million (5%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses. The increase was offset in part by a decrease of $93 million due to dispositions and $17 million due to the unfavorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand for laboratory products and, to a lesser extent, clinical trial logistics services.
 
Operating income margin was 14.9% in 2014 and 15.0% in 2013. The decrease resulted primarily from strategic growth investments offset in part by productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases.
 
Other Expense, Net
 
The company reported other expense, net, of $416 million and $290 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively (Note 4). Interest expense increased $218 million primarily due to the debt issued and assumed in connection with the acquisition of Life Technologies. In 2014, the company realized net gains of $9 million from equity and available-for-sale investments. In 2013, the company recorded $74 million of charges related to amortization of fees paid to obtain bridge financing commitments related to the acquisition of Life Technologies. Also in 2013, the company irrevocably contributed appreciated available-for-sale investments that had a fair value of $27 million to two of its U.K. defined benefit plans, resulting in realization of a previously unrecognized gain of $11 million.
 
Provision for Income Taxes
 
The company’s effective tax rates were 9.2% and 3.1% in 2014 and 2013, respectively. The 2014 provision for income taxes includes $390 million related to gains on the sales of businesses. Aside from the discrete tax on the gains, the company had a benefit from income taxes primarily due to restructuring and other costs associated with the acquisition of Life Technologies as well as an increase in the expected benefit from foreign tax credits. In 2014, non-U.S. subsidiaries of the company made cash and deemed distributions to the company’s U.S. operations which resulted in no net tax cost. As a result of these distributions, the company generated U.S. foreign tax credits of $172 million, offset in part by additional U.S. income taxes of $55 million on the related foreign income. The net result of these transactions favorably affected the income tax provision by $117 million and reduced the company’s effective tax rate by 5.6 percentage points in 2014. The federal tax credit for 2014 research and development activities favorably affected the tax provision in 2014 by $20.1 million, or 1.0 percentage point. In 2014, the company recognized a discrete tax benefit of $15.4 million, or 0.7 percentage points, attributable to tax rulings related to non-U.S. subsidiaries. Due primarily to the non-deductibility of intangible asset amortization, the company’s cash payments (net of refunds) for income taxes were higher than its income tax expense for financial reporting purposes and totaled $586 million and $230 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively. The effective tax rate in both periods was also affected by relatively significant earnings in lower tax jurisdictions. The tax provision in the 2014 period was favorably affected by $5.5 million, or 0.3 percentage points, as a result of adjustments to deferred tax balances due to changes in tax rates. The U.S. Congress has not extended the tax credit for research and development activities in 2015 as of February 26, 2015.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
In 2013, non-U.S. subsidiaries of the company made cash and deemed distributions to the company’s U.S. operations which resulted in no net tax cost. As a result of these distributions, the company generated U.S. foreign tax credits of $160 million offset by additional U.S. income taxes of $56 million on the related foreign income. The net result of these transactions favorably affected the income tax provision by $104 million and reduced the company’s effective tax rate by 7.9 percentage points in 2013. In addition, the effective tax rate in 2013 was also reduced by the U.S. Congress’ renewal in January 2013 of a tax credit for research and development activities for 2012 and 2013 and, to a lesser extent, financing costs associated with the acquisition of Life Technologies that are deductible in the U.S. The federal tax credit for 2012 and 2013 research and development activities favorably affected the tax provision in 2013 by $15.4 million, or 1.2 percentage points. The tax provision in the 2013 period was unfavorably affected by $5.4 million, or 0.4 percentage points, as a result of adjustments to deferred tax balances due to changes in tax rates and audit settlements.
 
The company expects its effective tax rate in 2015 will be less than 3% based on currently forecasted rates of profitability in the countries in which the company conducts business.
 
The company has operations and a taxable presence in approximately 50 countries outside the U.S. All of these countries except one have a lower tax rate than the U.S. The countries in which the company has a material presence that have significantly lower tax rates than the U.S. include Germany, the Netherlands, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The company’s ability to obtain a benefit from lower tax rates outside the U.S. is dependent on its relative levels of income in countries outside the U.S. and on the statutory tax rates in those countries. Based on the dispersion of the company’s non-U.S. income tax provision among many countries, the company believes that a change in the statutory tax rate in any individual country is not likely to materially affect the company’s income tax provision or net income, aside from any resulting one-time adjustment to the company’s deferred tax balances to reflect a new rate.
 
Discontinued Operations
 
In June 2012, in an effort to exit a non-core business, the company pursued a sale of its laboratory workstations business, part of the Laboratory Products and Services segment. The company completed the sale in October 2012 for nominal proceeds. In 2013, the company recorded an after-tax charge of $4.2 million for the estimated cost to raze certain abandoned facilities of the discontinued operations prior to the planned sale of the land.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
 
         In January 2015, the FASB issued new guidance to simplify income statement classification by removing the concept of extraordinary items from U.S. GAAP. As a result, items that are both unusual and infrequent will no longer be separately reported net of tax after continuing operations. The company adopted this guidance effective January 2015. The adoption of this standard in 2015 is not expected to have a material impact on the company’s consolidated financial statements.
 
In May 2014, the FASB issued new revenue recognition guidance which provides a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and will supersede most current revenue recognition guidance. The new standard also requires significantly expanded disclosures regarding the qualitative and quantitative information of an entity's nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. The guidance is effective for the company in 2017. Early adoption is not permitted. The company is currently evaluating the impact the standard will have on its consolidated financial statements.
 
In April 2014, the FASB issued new guidance on reporting discontinued operations and disclosures of disposals. Under the new guidance, only disposals representing a strategic shift in operations will be presented as discontinued operations. The new guidance also requires disclosure of the pre-tax income attributable to a disposal of a significant part of the company that does not qualify for discontinued operations reporting. The company adopted this guidance effective January 2015. The adoption of this standard in 2015 is not expected to have a material impact on the company’s consolidated financial statements.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
Contingent Liabilities
 
The company is contingently liable with respect to certain legal proceedings and related matters. An unfavorable outcome that differs materially from current accrual estimates, if any, for one or more of the matters described under the headings “Product Liability, Workers Compensation and Other Personal Injury Matters” and “Intellectual Property Matters” in Note 10 could have a material adverse effect on the company’s financial position as well as its results of operations and cash flows.
 
2013 Compared With 2012
 
Continuing Operations
               
Total
   
Currency
   
Acquisitions/
       
(In millions)
 
2013
   
2012
   
Change
   
Translation
   
Divestitures
   
Operations
 
                                     
Revenues
                                   
Life Sciences Solutions
  $ 712.5     $ 658.8     $ 53.7     $ (1.1 )   $     $ 54.8  
Analytical Instruments
    3,154.2       3,114.7       39.5       (23.2 )     9.4       53.3  
Specialty Diagnostics
    3,191.7       2,961.5       230.2       (5.4 )     143.0       92.6  
Laboratory Products
    and Services
    6,398.8       6,102.8       296.0       (5.7 )     35.7       266.0  
Eliminations
    (366.9 )     (327.9 )     (39.0 )     (1.0 )           (38.0 )
                                                 
Consolidated Revenues
  $ 13,090.3     $ 12,509.9     $ 580.4     $ (36.4 )   $ 188.1     $ 428.7  
                                                 
Sales in 2013 were $13.09 billion, an increase of $580 million from 2012. Sales increased $188 million due to acquisitions. The unfavorable effects of currency translation resulted in a decrease in revenues of $36 million in 2013. Aside from the effects of currency translation and acquisitions, revenues increased $429 million (3%) primarily due to increased demand offset in part by modestly lower sales to customers in academic and government markets which the company believes was due in part to uncertainty in government funding expectations in the U.S. Sales remained strong to customers in pharmaceutical and biotech industries while sales growth was modest to customers in industrial markets. Sales growth was strong in Asia and modest in Europe and North America.
 
In 2013, total company operating income and operating income margin were $1.61 billion and 12.3%, respectively, compared with $1.48 billion and 11.8%, respectively, in 2012. The increase in operating income and operating income margin was primarily due to productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, and, to a lesser extent, profit on incremental sales from acquisitions. The increase was offset in part by strategic growth investments, unfavorable foreign currency exchange and, to a lesser extent, $24 million of higher acquisition-related charges in 2013, an increase in amortization expense of $16 million in 2013 primarily related to the acquisitions of One Lambda and Doe & Ingalls and imposition of a medical device excise tax in 2013.
 
In 2013, the company recorded restructuring and other costs, net, of $180 million, including $29 million of charges to cost of revenues related primarily for the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition and, to a lesser extent, accelerated depreciation on manufacturing assets to be abandoned due to facility consolidations and $74 million of charges to selling, general and administrative expenses consisting primarily of transaction costs related to the acquisition of Life Technologies, revisions of estimated contingent consideration for an acquisition and a charge associated with product liability litigation. The company incurred $78 million of cash restructuring costs primarily for continued headcount reductions and facility consolidations in an effort to streamline operations, including severance at several businesses and abandoned facility expenses at businesses that have been or are being consolidated, such as the consolidation of several facilities in the U.S. and Europe (see Note 14). The cash costs also included $4 million of transaction expenses related to the agreement to sell its sera and media, gene modulation and magnetic beads businesses (see Note 2).
 
 
40

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
In 2012, the company recorded restructuring and other costs, net, of $150 million, including $56 million of charges to cost of revenues primarily related to the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition and $13 million of charges to selling, general and administrative expenses primarily consisting of transaction costs related to the acquisition of One Lambda. The company incurred $67 million of cash restructuring costs primarily for continued headcount reductions and facility consolidations in an effort to streamline operations, including severance at several businesses and abandoned facility expenses at businesses that have been or are being consolidated. The company also recorded $15 million of non-cash expense, net, primarily for the impairment of intangible asset at several small business units and, to a lesser extent, real estate writedowns related to facility consolidations partially offset by a $6 million gain from the settlement of pre-acquisition litigation.
 
The restructuring actions for which charges were incurred in 2012 resulted in annual cost savings of approximately $85 million beginning in part in 2012 and to a greater extent in 2013, including $10 million in the Life Sciences Solutions segment, $25 million in the Analytical Instruments segment, $20 million in the Specialty Diagnostics segment and $30 million in the Laboratory Products and Services segment.
 
Segment Results
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2013
   
2012
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
                 
Life Sciences Solutions
  $ 712.5     $ 658.8       8 %
Analytical Instruments
    3,154.2       3,114.7       1 %
Specialty Diagnostics
    3,191.7       2,961.5       8 %
Laboratory Products and Services
    6,398.8       6,102.8       5 %
Eliminations
    (366.9 )     (327.9 )     12 %
                         
Consolidated Revenues
  $ 13,090.3     $ 12,509.9       5 %
                         
Segment Income
                       
Life Sciences Solutions
  $ 169.7     $ 154.8       10 %
Analytical Instruments
    558.7       554.6       1 %
Specialty Diagnostics
    863.7       758.1       14 %
Laboratory Products and Services
    960.4       912.4       5 %
                         
Subtotal Reportable Segments
    2,552.5       2,379.9       7 %
                         
Cost of Revenues Charges
    (28.6 )     (55.6 )        
Selling, General and Administrative Costs, Net
    (73.5 )     (12.5 )        
Restructuring and Other Costs, Net
    (77.7 )     (82.1 )        
Amortization of Acquisition-related Intangible Assets
    (763.1 )     (747.6 )        
                         
Consolidated Operating Income
  $ 1,609.6     $ 1,482.1       9 %
                         
Reportable Segments Operating Income Margin
    19.5 %     19.0 %        
                         
Consolidated Operating Income Margin
    12.3 %     11.8 %        
                         
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
Income from the company’s reportable segments increased 7% to $2.55 billion in 2013 due primarily to productivity improvements, net of inflationary costs increases, and, to a lesser extent, profit on incremental sales from acquisitions, offset in part by strategic growth investments and unfavorable foreign currency exchange.
 
   Life Sciences Solutions
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2013
   
2012
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 712.5     $ 658.8       8 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    23.8 %     23.5 %  
0.3pt
 
                         
Sales in the Life Sciences Solutions segment increased $54 million to $713 million in 2013. Sales increased $55 million (8%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses offset in part by a decrease of $1 million due to the unfavorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand for bioscience products.
 
Operating income margin was 23.8% in 2013 compared to 23.5% in 2012. Operating margin was favorably affected by productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, offset in part by strategic growth investments.
 
   Analytical Instruments
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2013
   
2012
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 3,154.2     $ 3,114.7       1 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    17.7 %     17.8 %  
(0.1)pt
 
                         
Sales in the Analytical Instruments segment increased $40 million to $3.15 billion in 2013. Sales increased $53 million (2%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses and $9 million due to acquisitions. These increases were offset in part by a decrease of $23 million due to the unfavorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand for chromatography and mass spectrometry instruments, offset in part by lower sales of chemical analysis products which the company believes were affected by macro economic conditions facing customers in industrial markets.
 
Operating income margin was 17.7% in 2013 compared to 17.8% in 2012. Operating margin was unfavorably affected by strategic growth investments and, to a lesser extent, unfavorable foreign currency exchange, offset in part by productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases.
 
   Specialty Diagnostics
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2013
   
2012
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 3,191.7     $ 2,961.5       8 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    27.1 %     25.6 %  
1.5pt
 
                         
Sales in the Specialty Diagnostics segment increased $230 million to $3.19 billion in 2013. Sales increased $143 million due to an acquisition and $93 million (3%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses. These increases were offset in part by a decrease of $5 million due to the unfavorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand, particularly for clinical diagnostics products and, to a lesser extent, microbiology and allergy products in part as a result of strong flu and pollen seasons, partially offset by weakness from reduced healthcare utilization and lower sales of instruments to diagnostic laboratories due in part to lower healthcare reimbursement rates in the U.S. for anatomical pathology tests.
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
Operating income margin was 27.1% in 2013 and 25.6% in 2012. The increase resulted from profit on incremental sales from an acquisition and, to a lesser extent, at existing businesses as well as productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases. The increases were offset in part by strategic growth investments and imposition of the medical device excise tax in 2013.
 
   Laboratory Products and Services
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2013
   
2012
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 6,398.8     $ 6,102.8       5 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    15.0 %     15.0 %  
0.0pt
 
                         
Sales in the Laboratory Products and Services segment increased $296 million to $6.40 billion in 2013. Sales increased $266 million (4%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses and $36 million due to an acquisition. The unfavorable effects of currency translation resulted in a decrease in revenues of $6 million in 2013. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand for laboratory products and clinical trial logistics services. Sales of laboratory equipment increased only modestly due to weakness in demand from customers in academic and government markets.
 
Operating income margin was 15.0% in both 2013 and 2012. Productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases and, to a lesser extent, price increases were offset by strategic growth investments and unfavorable sales mix.
 
Other Expense, Net
 
The company reported other expense, net, of $290 million and $213 million in 2013 and 2012, respectively (Note 4). In the first quarter of 2013, the company irrevocably contributed appreciated available-for-sale investments that had a fair value of $27 million to two of its U.K. defined benefit plans, resulting in realization of a previously unrecognized gain of $11 million. In 2013, other items, net also includes $74 million of charges related to amortization of fees paid to obtain bridge financing commitments related to the Life Technologies Acquisition, offset in part by gains totaling $5 million from sales of equity investments. Interest expense increased $21 million primarily due to the debt issued to fund the One Lambda and Life Technologies acquisitions.
 
Provision for Income Taxes
 
The company’s effective tax rates were 3.1% and 0.9% in 2013 and 2012, respectively. Due primarily to the non-deductibility of intangible asset amortization, the company’s cash payments (net of refunds) for income taxes for its continuing operations were higher than its income tax expense for financial reporting purposes and totaled $230 million and $331 million in 2013 and 2012, respectively. Tax payments decreased in 2013 due primarily to refunds of taxes paid in 2012. In 2013, non-U.S. subsidiaries of the company made cash and deemed distributions to the U.S. which resulted in no net tax cost. As a result of these distributions, the company generated U.S. foreign tax credits of $160 million offset by additional U.S. income taxes of $56 million on the related foreign income. The net result of these transactions favorably affected the income tax provision by $104 million and reduced the company’s effective tax rate by 7.9 percentage points in 2013. In addition, the effective tax rate in 2013 was also reduced by the U.S. Congress’ renewal in January 2013 of a tax credit for research and development activities for 2012 and 2013 and, to a lesser extent, increased earnings in lower tax jurisdictions and financing costs associated with the acquisition of Life Technologies that are deductible in the U.S. The tax credit for 2012 and 2013 research and development activities favorably affected the tax provision in 2013 by $15.4 million, or 1.2 percentage points. The tax provision in the 2013 period was unfavorably affected by $5.4 million, or 0.4 percentage points, as a result of adjustments to deferred tax balances due to changes in tax rates and audit settlements. The tax provision in 2012 was favorably affected by $53 million, or 4.1 percentage points, as a result of adjustments to deferred tax balances due to changes in tax rates, particularly a lower tax rate in Sweden.
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
Discontinued Operations
 
The company completed the sale of its laboratory workstations business in October 2012 for nominal proceeds. The business was included in the Laboratory Products and Services segment prior to being reclassified to discontinued operations for all periods presented in June 2012. Revenues of the laboratory workstations business were $147 million in the 2012 period prior to the sale. The business incurred a pre-tax loss of $30 million in 2012 in part due to inventory write-offs, higher manufacturing costs and restructuring and other transition costs associated with relocation of the business. In 2012, the company recorded after-tax charges aggregating $63 million as the loss on the divestiture. The loss in 2013 for discontinued operations primarily represents a charge for the cost of razing abandoned facilities of the business prior to sale of the land.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Consolidated working capital was $1.19 billion at December 31, 2014, compared with $6.75 billion at December 31, 2013. Included in working capital were cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments of $1.35 billion at December 31, 2014 and $5.83 billion at December 31, 2013. The decrease in working capital is primarily due to the cash used to fund the Life Technologies acquisition and an increase in short-term debt of $1.2 billion, also principally due to the acquisition.
 
2014
 
Cash provided by operating activities was $2.62 billion during 2014, primarily from the company’s earnings. Increases in accounts receivable and inventories used cash of $145 million and $110 million, respectively, primarily to support growth in sales. Other assets decreased by $163 million primarily due to collection of tax refunds including those related to legacy Life Technologies’ operations. Other liabilities increased by $308 million primarily due to the timing of payments for incentive compensation and income taxes. In 2014, the company made cash payments including severance obligations, third-party transaction/integration costs and monetizing certain equity awards totaling $325 million related to the acquisition of Life Technologies. The company made cash contributions to its pension and postretirement benefit plans totaling $50 million during 2014. Cash payments for income taxes increased to $586 million during 2014, compared with $230 million in 2013, in part due to taxes on the gains from the sale of businesses.
 
During 2014, the company’s investing activities used $11.78 billion of cash, principally for the acquisition of Life Technologies. Acquisitions used cash of $13.06 billion. Proceeds from the sale of businesses provided $1.52 billion. The company’s investing activities also included the purchase of $428 million of property, plant and equipment. In February 2015, the company completed an acquisition for approximately $300 million in cash (Note 17).
 
The company’s financing activities provided $4.80 billion of cash during 2014. To partially fund the acquisition of Life Technologies, the company borrowed $5.00 billion under an unsecured term loan (Note 9) and issued 34.9 million shares of its common stock for net proceeds of $2.94 billion in cash (Note 11). Other long-term borrowings totaled $1.59 billion. Repayments of long-term debt, principally the term loan, totaled $4.43 billion. A decrease in commercial paper obligations used cash of $250 million. The company’s financing activities also included $155 million of proceeds from employee stock option exercises offset by the payment of $235 million in cash dividends. On November 8, 2012, the Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $1.00 billion of the company’s common stock beginning January 1, 2013. At December 31, 2014, $910 million was available for future repurchases of the company’s common stock under this authorization. In the first quarter of 2015 through February 26, 2015, the company repurchased $500 million of its common stock under this authorization. In February 2015, the company notified holders of its 5.00% Senior Notes due June 2015 that it will redeem all $250 million principal amount outstanding on March 6, 2015.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources (continued)
 
    As of December 31, 2014, the company’s short-term debt totaled $2.21 billion, including $1.21 billion of senior notes, due in the first half of 2015 and $1.00 billion of minimum payments due in the next twelve months on the company’s term loan. The company has a revolving credit facility with a bank group that provides unsecured multi-currency revolving credit. In February 2015, the maximum capacity of this facility was increased from $1.50 billion to $2.00 billion. If the company borrows under this facility, it intends to leave undrawn an amount equivalent to outstanding commercial paper to provide a source of funds in the event that commercial paper markets are not available. As of December 31, 2014, no borrowings were outstanding under the company’s revolving credit facility, although available capacity was reduced by approximately $59 million as a result of outstanding letters of credit.
 
Approximately half of the company’s cash balances and cash flows from operations are from outside the U.S. The company uses its non-U.S. cash for needs outside of the U.S. including acquisitions and repayment of acquisition-related intercompany debt to the U.S. In addition, the company also transfers cash to the U.S. using non-taxable returns of capital as well as dividends where the related U.S. foreign tax credit equals or exceeds any tax cost arising from the dividends. As a result of using such means of transferring cash to the U.S., the company does not expect any material adverse liquidity effects from its significant non-U.S. cash balances for the foreseeable future.
 
The company believes that its existing cash and short-term investments of $1.35 billion as of December 31, 2014 and its future cash flow from operations together with available borrowing capacity under its revolving credit agreement will be sufficient to meet the cash requirements of its existing businesses for the foreseeable future, including at least the next 24 months.
 
2013
 
Cash provided by operating activities was $2.01 billion during 2013, primarily from the company’s earnings. Increases in accounts receivable and inventories used cash of $148 million and $72 million, respectively, primarily to support growth in sales. A decrease in other assets provided cash of $169 million primarily due to timing of income tax refunds. An increase in accounts payable provided cash of $47 million, primarily due to higher inventory purchases. An increase in other liabilities provided cash of $163 million primarily due to the timing of payments for income taxes and incentive compensation. In the 2013, the company paid fees to obtain bridge financing commitments and other transaction costs totaling $108 million related to the acquisition of Life Technologies. The company made cash contributions to its pension and postretirement benefit plans totaling $38 million during 2013. Cash payments for income taxes of continuing operations totaled $230 million. Payments for restructuring actions, principally severance costs and lease and other expenses of real estate consolidation, used cash of $69 million during 2013.
 
During 2013, the company’s primary investing activity was the purchase of $282 million of property, plant and equipment.
 
The company’s financing activities provided $3.31 billion of cash during 2013. To partially fund the acquisition of Life Technologies, the company issued $3.20 billion of senior notes. The company’s financing activities also included the receipt of $230 million of proceeds from employee stock option exercises offset by the repurchase of $90 million of the company’s common stock and the payment of $216 million in cash dividends.
 
 
45

 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Liquidity and Capital Resources (continued)
 
2012
 
Cash provided by operating activities was $2.04 billion during 2012, primarily from the company’s earnings. An increase in inventories used cash of $60 million, primarily to support growth in sales. An increase in other assets used cash of $100 million primarily related to the timing of tax refunds. An increase in other liabilities provided cash of $127 million, primarily due to the timing of payments for incentive compensation and income taxes. Cash payments for income taxes of continuing operations totaled $331 million during 2012. Payments for restructuring actions, principally severance costs and lease and other expenses of real estate consolidation, used cash of $64 million during 2012.
 
During 2012, the company’s primary investing activities included acquisitions and the purchase of property, plant and equipment. The company expended $1.08 billion for acquisitions and $315 million for purchases of property, plant and equipment. The company’s investing activities also included a $45 million increase in restricted cash to collateralize short-term borrowings in Asia. The company’s discontinued operations provided $59 million of cash, primarily tax benefits from the loss on sale of the laboratory workstations business and receipt of escrowed proceeds from the 2011 sale of Lancaster Laboratories.
 
The company’s financing activities used $918 million of cash during 2012, principally for the repurchase of $1.15 billion of the company’s common stock and to reduce commercial paper obligations by $849 million, offset in part by the issuance of $1.3 billion in senior notes. The company’s financing activities in 2012 also included the repayment of $355 million of long-term debt and the receipt of $254 million of proceeds from employee stock option exercises. Cash dividend payments totaled $142 million during 2012.
 
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
The company did not use special purpose entities or other off-balance-sheet financing arrangements in 2012 - 2014 except for letters of credit, bank guarantees, a build-to-suit lease arrangement entered in 2012, surety bonds and other guarantees disclosed in the table or discussed below. Of the amounts disclosed in the table below for letters of credit, bank guarantees, surety bonds and other guarantees, $32.1 million relates to guarantees of the performance of third parties, principally in connection with businesses that were sold. The balance relates to guarantees of the company’s own performance, primarily in the ordinary course of business.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources (continued)
 
Contractual Obligations and Other Commercial Commitments
 
The table below summarizes, by period due or expiration of commitment, the company’s contractual obligations and other commercial commitments as of December 31, 2014.
 
   
Payments due by Period or Expiration of Commitment
 
(In millions)
 
2015
   
2016 and
2017
   
2018 and
2019
   
2020 and
Thereafter
   
Total
 
                               
Contractual Obligations and Other
                             
   Commercial Commitments
                             
Debt principal, including short-
   term debt (a)
  $ 2,202.6     $ 3,476.0     $ 1,400.6     $ 7,324.2     $ 14,403.4  
Interest
    408.3       703.6       624.7       1,160.0       2,896.6  
Capital lease obligations
    4.2       4.7       3.6       6.6       19.1  
Operating lease obligations
    150.8       203.8       123.9       193.5       672.0  
Unconditional purchase
   obligations (b)
    315.5       37.1       4.0       1.2       357.8  
Letters of credit and bank
   guarantees
    105.3       18.3       3.8       12.2       139.6  
Surety bonds and other
   guarantees
    44.0       1.9                   45.9  
Pension obligations on balance
   sheet
    31.4       70.5       79.1       425.4       606.4  
Asset retirement obligations
    11.7       9.5       5.6       12.2       39.0  
Acquisition-related contingent
   consideration accrued on
   balance sheet
    17.9       1.2       0.2       10.3       29.6  
Other (c)
    5.4                         5.4  
                                         
    $ 3,297.1     $ 4,526.6     $ 2,245.5     $ 9,145.6     $ 19,214.8  
 
(a) 
Amounts represent the expected cash payments for debt and do not include any deferred issuance costs.
(b) 
Unconditional purchase obligations include agreements to purchase goods, services or fixed assets that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, including: fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction. Purchase obligations exclude agreements that are cancelable at any time without penalty.
(c)
Obligation represents funding commitments pursuant to investments held by the company.
 
Reserves for unrecognized tax benefits of $214 million have not been included in the above table due to the inability to predict the timing of tax audit resolutions.
 
The company has no material commitments for purchases of property, plant and equipment, other than those included in the above table, but expects that for 2015, such expenditures will approximate $450 to $470 million.
 
A guarantee of residual value under a build-to-suit lease arrangement for a facility that was leased upon completion of construction has not been included in the above table due to the inability to predict if and when the guarantee may require payment. Upon completion of construction in 2014, a five-year lease commenced with options to purchase the facility or renew the lease for up to three 5-year terms. The residual value guarantee becomes operative at the end of the lease for up to a maximum of $58 million.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources (continued)
 
A guarantee of pension plan obligations of a divested business has not been included in the preceding table due to the inability to predict if and when the guarantee may require payment. The purchaser of the divested business has agreed to pay for the pension benefits, however the company was required to guarantee payment of these pension benefits should the purchaser fail to do so. The amount of the guarantee at December 31, 2014 was $49 million.
 
In disposing of assets or businesses, the company often provides representations, warranties and/or indemnities to cover various risks including, for example, unknown damage to the assets, environmental risks involved in the sale of real estate, liability to investigate and remediate environmental contamination at waste facilities, and unidentified tax liabilities and related legal fees. The company does not have the ability to estimate the potential liability from such indemnities because they relate to unknown conditions. However, the company has no reason to believe that these uncertainties would have a material adverse effect on its financial position, annual results of operations or cash flows.
 
The company has recorded liabilities for known indemnifications included as part of environmental liabilities. See Item 1. Business – Environmental Matters for a discussion of these liabilities.
 
 
The company is exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates and currency exchange rates, which could affect its future results of operations and financial condition. The company manages its exposure to these risks through its regular operating and financing activities. The company has periodically hedged interest rate risks of fixed-rate instruments with offsetting interest rate swaps. Additionally, the company uses short-term forward and option contracts primarily to hedge certain balance sheet and operational exposures resulting from changes in currency exchange rates. Such exposures result from purchases, sales, cash and intercompany loans that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currencies of the respective operations. The currency-exchange contracts principally hedge transactions denominated in euro, British pounds sterling, Japanese yen, Norwegian kroner and Swedish kronor. Income and losses arising from these derivative contracts are recognized as offsets to losses and income resulting from the underlying exposure being hedged. The company does not enter into speculative derivative agreements.
 
Interest Rates
 
The company is exposed to changes in interest rates while conducting normal business operations as a result of ongoing investing and financing activities, which affect the company’s debt as well as cash and cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2014, the company’s debt portfolio was comprised primarily of fixed rate borrowings. The fair market value of the company’s fixed interest rate debt is subject to interest rate risk. Generally, the fair market value of fixed interest rate debt will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. The total estimated fair value of the company’s debt at December 31, 2014 was $14.89 billion (see Note 12). Fair values were determined from available market prices using current interest rates and terms to maturity. If interest rates were to decrease by 100 basis points, the fair value of the company’s debt at December 31, 2014 would increase by approximately $683 million. If interest rates were to increase by 100 basis points, the fair value of the company’s debt at December 31, 2014 would decrease by approximately $629 million.
 
In addition, interest rate changes would result in a change in the company’s interest expense due to variable-rate debt instruments including a term loan agreement and swap arrangements. In 2014, a 100 basis point increase in interest rates on the term loan and swap arrangements would have increased the company’s annual pre-tax interest expense by approximately $35 million.
 
 
 
48

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk (continued)
 
Currency Exchange Rates
 
The company views its investment in international subsidiaries with a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar as permanent. The company’s investment in international subsidiaries is sensitive to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. The functional currencies of the company’s international subsidiaries are principally denominated in British pounds sterling, Swedish kronor, euro, Danish kroner and Canadian dollars. The effect of a change in the period ending currency exchange rates on the company’s net investment in international subsidiaries is reflected in the “accumulated other comprehensive items” component of shareholders’ equity. The company also uses foreign currency-denominated debt to partially hedge its net investments in foreign operations against adverse movements in exchange rates. A 10% depreciation in year-end 2014 functional currencies, relative to the U.S. dollar, would result in a reduction of shareholders’ equity of $1.04 billion.
 
The fair value of forward currency-exchange contracts is sensitive to changes in currency exchange rates. The fair value of forward currency-exchange contracts is the estimated amount that the company would pay or receive upon termination of the contract, taking into account the change in currency exchange rates. A 10% depreciation in year-end 2014 non-functional currency exchange rates related to the company’s contracts would result in an unrealized gain on forward currency-exchange contracts of $110 million. A 10% appreciation in year-end 2014 non-functional currency exchange rates related to the company’s contracts would result in an increase in the unrealized loss on forward currency-exchange contracts of $110 million. The unrealized gains or losses on forward currency-exchange contracts resulting from changes in currency exchange rates are expected to approximately offset losses or gains on the exposures being hedged.
 
Certain of the company’s cash and cash equivalents are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the depositor and are sensitive to changes in currency exchange rates. A 10% depreciation in the related year-end 2014 non-functional currency exchange rates applied to such cash balances would result in a negative impact of $23 million on the company’s net income.
 
Item 8.            Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
This data is submitted as a separate section to this report. See Item 15 “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.”
 
 
Not applicable.
 
Item 9A.         Controls and Procedures
 
Management’s Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
 
The company’s management, with the participation of the company’s chief executive officer and chief financial officer, evaluated the effectiveness of the company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2014. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the company’s management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on the evaluation of the company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2014, the company’s chief executive officer and chief financial officer concluded that, as of such date, the company’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.
 
 
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
There have been no changes in the company’s internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) during the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2014, that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect the company’s internal control over financial reporting.
 
Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
 
The company’s management, including the company’s chief executive officer and chief financial officer, is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) for the company. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The company’s management conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014 based on criteria established in “Internal Control - Integrated Framework” (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on this assessment, the company’s management concluded that, as of December 31, 2014, the company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective.
 
The company’s independent registered public accounting firm, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, has audited the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014, as stated in their report that appears on page F-2 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Item 9B.         Other Information
 
Not applicable.
 
PART III
 
 
The information with respect to directors required by this Item will be contained in our definitive proxy statement to be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after the close of business of the fiscal year (2015 Definitive Proxy Statement) and is incorporated in this report by reference.
 
The information with respect to executive officers required by this Item is included in Item 1 of Part I of this report.
 
The other information required by this Item will be contained in our 2015 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.
 
Item 11.          Executive Compensation
 
The information required by this Item will be contained in our 2015 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.
 
 
The information required by this Item will be contained in our 2015 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.
 
 
 
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
 
The information required by this Item will be contained in our 2015 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.
 
Item 14.          Principal Accountant Fees and Services
 
The information required by this Item will be contained in our 2015 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.
 
PART IV
 
 
(a)       The following documents are filed as part of this report:
 
  (1) Consolidated Financial Statements (see Index on page F-1 of this report):
 
  Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
  Consolidated Balance Sheet
 
  Consolidated Statement of Income
 
  Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income
 
  Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows
 
  Consolidated Statement of Shareholders’ Equity
 
  Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
 
  (2) Consolidated Financial Statement Schedule (see Index on page F-1 of this report):
 
  Schedule II: Valuation and Qualifying Accounts
 
  All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or not required, or because the required information is included either in the consolidated financial statements or in the notes thereto.
 
(b)       Exhibits
 
            See the Exhibit Index on page 53.
 
 
 
SIGNATURES
 
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this Report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

Date:          February 26, 2015
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.