tmok2013.htm
 
 


 
UNITED STATES
 
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
 
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

x
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013 or

o
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Commission file number 1-8002

THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
04-2209186
(State of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
   
81 Wyman Street
 
Waltham, Massachusetts
02451
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (781) 622-1000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
 
 
Common Stock, $1.00 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
Preferred Stock Purchase Rights
 
New York Stock Exchange
 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x  No o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes o  No x

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x  No o

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x  No o

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer x                                        Accelerated filer o                                        Non-accelerated filer o        Smaller reporting company o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o  No x

As of June 29, 2013, the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the Registrant was approximately $30,411,997,000 (based on the last reported sale of common stock on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Tape reporting system on June 29, 2013).

As of February 1, 2014, the Registrant had 391,792,194 shares of Common Stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Sections of Thermo Fisher’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2014 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Parts II and III of this report.
 
 


 

 
 

 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2013
 
   TABLE OF CONTENTS  
     
   PART I  
     
   
Page
 
 
 
     
Item 1.
3
     
Item 1A.
20
     
Item 1B.
26
     
Item 2.
26
     
Item 3.
27
     
Item 4.
29
     
 
PART II
 
     
Item 5.
29
     
Item 6.
30
     
Item 7.
31
     
Item 7A.
51
     
Item 8.
52
     
Item 9.
52
     
Item 9A.
52
     
Item 9B.
53
     
 
PART III
 
     
Item 10.
53
     
Item 11.
53
     
Item 12.
53
     
Item 13.
54
     
Item 14.
54
     
 
PART IV
 
     
Item 15.
54
 

 
2

 

THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
PART I
 
Item 1.          Business
 
General Development of Business
 
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (also referred to in this document as “Thermo Fisher,” “we,” the “company,” or the “registrant”) is the world leader in serving science. Our mission is to enable our customers to make the world healthier, cleaner and safer. We help our customers accelerate life sciences research, solve complex analytical challenges, improve patient diagnostics and increase laboratory productivity.
 
On February 3, 2014, we completed our acquisition of Life Technologies Corporation (“Life Technologies”). In connection with obtaining certain regulatory approvals for the acquisition, which we refer to as the “Life Technologies Acquisition,” in December 2013, we entered an agreement to sell our sera and media, gene modulation and magnetic beads businesses to GE Healthcare, for approximately $1.06 billion. References in this document to “Thermo Fisher,” “we,” the “company,” or the “registrant” pertain to the combined company including both the legacy Thermo Fisher and legacy Life Technologies businesses, except where indicated and for the information included in Part II, Items 6 through 9A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which pertain to only legacy Thermo Fisher businesses. The information in these items has been presented in this way to provide consistency with Thermo Fisher’s 2013 financial statements.
 
Thermo Fisher has approximately 50,000 employees and serves more than 400,000 customers within pharmaceutical and biotech companies, hospitals and clinical diagnostic labs, universities, research institutions and government agencies, as well as environmental, industrial quality and process control settings.
 
We serve our customers through four premier brands, Thermo Scientific, Life Technologies, Fisher Scientific and Unity Lab Services:
 
 •  
Under the Thermo Scientific brand, we offer customers in research, diagnostics, industrial, and applied markets a complete range of high-end analytical instruments as well as laboratory equipment, software, services, consumables and reagents. Our portfolio of products includes innovative technologies for mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, molecular spectroscopy, sample preparation, informatics, chemical research and analysis, cell culture, bioprocess production, cellular, protein and molecular biology research, allergy testing, drugs-of-abuse testing, therapeutic drug monitoring testing, microbiology, anatomical pathology, transplant diagnostics, as well as environmental monitoring and process control.
 
 •  
Under the Life Technologies brand, we offer life sciences customers a broad range of superior-performing products to help them drive innovation in research, clinical and applied markets. Our portfolio includes some of the most cited products and technologies in qPCR, capillary electrophoresis (CE) sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS), molecular diagnostics, forensics, cell culture and analysis, and agriculture research.
 
 •  
Fisher Scientific is our channels brand, offering customers a complete portfolio of laboratory equipment, chemicals, supplies and services used in scientific research, healthcare, safety, and education markets. These products are offered through an extensive network of direct sales professionals, industry-specific catalogs, e-commerce capabilities and supply-chain management services. We also offer a range of biopharma services for clinical trials management and biospecimen storage.
 
 
Unity Lab Services is our services brand, offering a complete portfolio of services from enterprise level engagements to individual instruments and laboratory equipment, regardless of the original manufacturer. Through our network of world-class service and support personnel, we provide services that are designed to help our customers improve productivity, reduce costs, and drive decisions with better data.
 
 
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
In addition to our four premier brands, we offer a number of specialty brands that cover a range of products.
 
    We continuously increase our depth of capabilities in technologies, software and services, and leverage our extensive global channels to address our customers’ emerging needs. Our goal is to make our customers more productive in an increasingly competitive business environment, and to allow them to solve their challenges, from complex research to improved patient care, environmental and process monitoring, and consumer safety.
 
Thermo Fisher is a Delaware corporation and was incorporated in 1956. The company completed its initial public offering in 1967 and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1980.
 
Forward-looking Statements
 
    Forward-looking statements, within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act), are made throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical fact may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. Without limiting the foregoing, the words “believes,” “anticipates,” “plans,” “expects,” “seeks,” “estimates,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. While the company may elect to update forward-looking statements in the future, it specifically disclaims any obligation to do so, even if the company’s estimates change, and readers should not rely on those forward-looking statements as representing the company’s views as of any date subsequent to the date of the filing of this report.
 
A number of important factors could cause the results of the company to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements, including those detailed under the heading, “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A.
 
Business Segments and Products
 
For the year ended December 31, 2013, we reported our business in three segments: Analytical Technologies; Specialty Diagnostics; and Laboratory Products and Services. For financial information about these segments, including domestic and international operations, see Note 3 to our Consolidated Financial Statements, which begin on page F-1 of this report.
 
With the completion of our acquisition of Life Technologies, we have established a new reporting segment, called Life Sciences Solutions. Effective January 1, 2014, the company’s financial performance will be reported in four segments reflecting the following changes:
 
      •  
The new Life Sciences Solutions Segment consists of the majority of the former Life Technologies businesses and Thermo Fisher biosciences businesses.
 
      •  
Thermo Fisher’s global chemicals business has moved from the Biosciences business in the Analytical Technologies Segment to the Laboratory Products and Services Segment.
 
      •  
Thermo Fisher’s Analytical Technologies Segment has been renamed Analytical Instruments to reflect the transfer of the biosciences businesses to other segments, as mentioned above.
 
      •  
Two small specialty diagnostics businesses within Life Technologies have become part of the Specialty Diagnostics Segment.
 
      •  
Thermo Fisher has agreed to divest of its sera and media, gene modulation and magnetic beads businesses.
 
    The description of the company’s businesses set forth below reflects the organization of the company prior to the completion of the Life Technologies Acquisition. The businesses have been presented in this way to provide consistency with the company’s 2013 financial statements and management’s discussion and analysis of the 2013 financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The Life Technologies businesses are described under the heading, “Life Technologies Businesses and Related 2014 Segment Changes and Divestitures.”
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Analytical Technologies Segment
 
Through our Analytical Technologies Segment, we provide a broad offering of instruments, reagents, consumables, software and services that are used for a range of applications in the laboratory, on the production line and in the field. These products are used by customers in all four of our key end markets: pharmaceutical and biotechnology; academic and government; industrial and applied; and healthcare and diagnostics. This segment includes four primary businesses – Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry, Chemical Analysis, Environmental and Process Instruments, and Biosciences.
 
Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry
 
Our chromatography and mass spectrometry business provides analytical instrumentation for organic and inorganic sample analysis. These products are complemented by laboratory information management systems (LIMS); chromatography data systems (CDS); database analytical tools; automation systems; and a range of consumables, such as a full line of chromatography columns.
 
Mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique for analyzing chemical compounds, individually or in complex mixtures, by forming charged ions that are then analyzed according to their mass-to-charge ratios. In addition to molecular information, each discrete chemical compound generates a pattern that provides structurally identifiable information. Our comprehensive offering includes life sciences mass spectrometry systems; inorganic mass spectrometry systems; and elemental analysis instrumentation; as well as a range of sample preparation and separation products including auto-samplers and multiplexing systems.
 
 
•   
Life Sciences Mass Spectrometers include three major product lines: triple quadrupole, ion trap and hybrid systems. Our triple quadrupole systems provide high performance quantitative analysis of chemicals in biological fluids, environmental samples and food matrices. They are also used by the pharmaceutical industry for targeted quantitation during drug discovery. Our ion trap systems are used for in-depth structural analysis of large biomolecules, such as proteins, as well as structural characterization of small molecules, such as drugs and drug metabolites. Our hybrid (LC/MS/MS) mass spectrometers combine linear ion trap, quadrupole and Orbitrap technologies to provide high resolution and accurate mass capabilities for both research and applied markets and are well suited for drug metabolism, proteomics, environmental analysis, food safety, toxicology and clinical research applications. We also offer a comprehensive portfolio of instrument control and data analysis software to help customers simplify their workflows and obtain knowledge from often complex data.
 
 
•  
Inorganic Mass Spectrometers include four product lines: isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); multi-collector mass spectrometry (MC/IRMS); inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS); and high resolution trace mass spectrometry (HR Trace/MS). These products are primarily used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of inorganic matter in a range of applications, including environmental analysis, materials science and earth sciences.
 
Chromatography is a technique for separating, identifying and quantifying individual chemical components of substances based on their specific physical and chemical characteristics. Our chromatography product line includes high performance liquid chromatography, ion chromatography and gas chromatography systems, all of which are supported by our Chromeleon chromatography data system software. Our comprehensive array of consumables and environmental sampling products complete the workflow solution.
 
 
•  
Liquid Chromatography (LC) Systems analyze complex sample matrices in liquids. Our high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) systems offer high throughput and sensitivity and are sold either as stand-alone systems or integrated with our mass spectrometers (LC/MS and LC/MS/MS). These systems are used for a range of applications, from complex proteomic analyses to routine industrial QA/QC.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
 
•  
Ion Chromatography (IC) Systems separate ionic (charged) or highly polar molecules (e.g., sugars and carbohydrates), usually found in water-based solutions, and typically detect them based on their electrical conductivity. Our IC products are used in a wide range of applications, including scientific research, and environmental testing, as well as quality control in pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and other industrial processes.
 
 
•  
Gas Chromatography (GC) Systems analyze complex sample matrices in gases, comprising both separation and detection technology. Separation technology is common to all gas chromatography analyzers, and is paired with either a conventional detector (GC) or with different types of mass spectrometers (GC/MS). Our GC/MS offering includes a triple stage quadrupole, a single stage quadrupole, and an ion trap, for a range of applications, including food safety testing, quantitative screening of environmental samples, and complex molecular analyses.
 
Our elemental analysis spectrometers include two product lines: atomic absorption (AA) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) systems, which use atomic spectroscopy techniques to identify trace concentrations of elements in liquid and solid samples primarily in environmental, petrochemical, food safety, metallurgical, geochemical and clinical/toxicology research applications. These products are widely used in growth markets such as China, India and Latin America to support compliance with increasingly stringent international environmental and consumer safety regulations.
 
Chemical Analysis
 
Our chemical analysis products fall into four main categories: materials and minerals; molecular spectroscopy; portable analytical instruments; and radiation measurement and security instruments. Customers use these products to quickly and accurately analyze the composition of materials to optimize workflows in academic, life sciences, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications or to help them comply with governmental regulations and industry safety standards. Our product lines range from those used in the laboratory for research or forensics, to those used on the production line to improve quality and efficiency, to portable systems for rapid and real-time identification in the field or to analyze, measure or respond to hazardous situations.
 
 
•  
Materials and Minerals Instruments include bench-top, production line, and stand-alone systems for a range of industrial applications. For example, our laboratory elemental analyzers use X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and arc spark optical emission (OES) techniques for accurate and precise analysis of bulk materials in the metals, cement, minerals, and petrochemicals industries. We also offer on line analyzers that employ neutron activation and measurement of gamma rays to analyze bulk materials non-invasively and in real time, as well as systems that enable high-speed weighing during bulk materials handling. We also offer gauging systems that employ ionizing and non-ionizing technologies to measure the total thickness, basis weight and coating thickness of flat-sheet materials, such as steel, plastics, foil, rubber and glass. We also offer on line analyzers based on a variety of technologies such as X-ray imaging and ultra-trace chemical detection, to inspect packaged goods for physical contaminants, validate fill quantities, or check for missing or broken parts on line and at high speeds in the food and beverage, pharmaceutical production and packaging industries to maintain safety and quality standards.
 
 
•  
Molecular Spectroscopy Instruments are divided into five primary techniques: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, near-infrared (NIR), ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These technologies are typically used in the laboratory to provide information on the structure of molecules to identify, verify and quantify organic materials in pharmaceutical, biotechnology, polymer, chemical, and forensic sciences. Our material characterization instruments include rheometers and extruders that measure viscosity, elasticity, processability, and temperature-related mechanical changes of various materials. We also provide a range of surface analysis instruments commonly used in the semiconductor, metals, coatings, and polymer industries as a product development and failure analysis tool.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
 
•  
Portable Analytical Instruments are rugged handheld products that provide rapid, precise, real-time analysis at the point of need. Our two main product categories are elemental and optical analyzers. Our portable elemental analyzers use XRF technology for identifying metal alloys in scrap metal recycling; QA/QC; precious metals analysis; environmental analysis; and lead screening in a range of consumer products. Our portable optical analyzers utilize Raman, FTIR and NIR technologies for use in the field by first responders, and law enforcement and military personnel who need to quickly and accurately identify chemicals and explosives in critical safety and security situations. Other applications include QA/QC in pharmaceutical production and identification of counterfeit drugs.
 
 
•  
Radiation Measurement and Security Products are used to monitor, detect and identify specific forms of radiation and trace explosives in nuclear power, environmental, industrial, medical, and security applications. Our primary customers include national, regional, and local government agencies responsible for monitoring cargo, vehicles and people traveling across borders. These products are also used by first-responders in safety and security situations, and for worker safety in the nuclear power and other industrial markets.
 
Environmental and Process Instruments
 
Our environmental and process instruments include fixed and portable instrumentation that help our customers protect people and the environment as well as comply with government regulations and industry safety standards.
 
    Our products are used by environmental regulatory agencies and power plant operators to measure ambient air, stack gas emissions, and particulates in compliance with regulated emissions standards. Our products are also used in process monitoring applications by customers in natural gas, petrochemical, refining, and a wide variety of other industrial markets to provide measurements that improve efficiency, provide process and quality control, and increase worker safety.
 
Biosciences
 
Our biosciences offerings include reagents, instruments and consumables that help our customers conduct biological and medical research, discover and produce new drugs and vaccines, and diagnose disease. These products fall into three main categories: life science research, global chemicals and bioprocess production.
 
 
•  
Life Science Research reagents, instruments, and consumables are used for cell culture, protein, biology, molecular biology, and cell biology research and applied testing. The portfolio includes antibodies and products for protein purification, detection, modification, and analysis; products for nucleic acid sequencing, detection and purification, cloning and analysis, RNA interference and gene expression; and cellular imaging instruments and software reagents for high content analysis. Many of these products are also used in applied markets, including agriculture, forensics, diagnostics product development, and toxicology research.
 
 
•  
Global Chemicals comprises a broad range of chemicals, solvents and reagents supporting virtually every laboratory application – from research to drug discovery and development and manufacturing. This portfolio includes organic chemicals used to synthesize new materials; essential laboratory chemicals used by scientists to purify, extract, separate, identify and manufacture products; high purity analytical reagents, bioreagents used in many different applications, from cell growth to detailed protein analysis; and novel chemical building blocks, reactive intermediates and screening libraries used to accelerate drug discovery. We provide bulk volumes of many products for scale-up from research to development and customized services for chemical procurement, processing, production, testing, and packaging.
 
 
•  
BioProcess Production products include customized, single-use containers and single-use bioreactor systems, liquid and dry powder cell-culture media (serum-free, chemically defined, protein-free, and animal derived component-free media), sera and process liquids. These products are used in the manufacturing of human and animal vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, protein-based therapeutics and products for wound healing. Available in turnkey and open architecture formats, these single-use systems have been specifically qualified for bioprocess production applications in the biopharmaceutical, biotechnology and diagnostic industries. Custom services are also available for media and feed formulation media optimization, analytical services, production method development and optimization, rapid prototyping, and supply chain management.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Specialty Diagnostics Segment
 
Our Specialty Diagnostics Segment offers a wide range of diagnostic test kits, reagents, culture media, instruments and associated products in order to serve customers in healthcare, clinical, pharmaceutical, industrial, and food safety laboratories. Our healthcare products are used to increase the speed and accuracy of diagnoses, which improves patient care in a more cost efficient manner. This segment has six primary businesses – ImmunoDiagnostics, Clinical Diagnostics, Transplant Diagnostics, Microbiology, Anatomical Pathology, and our Healthcare Market Channel.
 
ImmunoDiagnostics
 
Our immunodiagnostics offerings include developing, manufacturing and marketing complete blood-test systems to support the clinical diagnosis and monitoring of allergy, asthma and autoimmune diseases. Unlike skin prick tests, our in vitro allergy diagnostic tests utilize flexible systems which provide for convenient and accurate allergy diagnoses on low and high-throughput automation. In addition, we now can offer antibody tests for approximately 20 indications to help diagnose autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, lupus and scleroderma. These allergy and autoimmunity product lines operate on a common instrument platform which supports both productivity and cost efficiencies in clinical laboratories around the world. Our products include ImmunoCAP for allergy and asthma tests and EliA for autoimmunity tests.
 
Clinical Diagnostics
 
Our clinical diagnostics products include a broad offering of liquid, ready-to-use and lyophilized immunodiagnostic reagent kits, calibrators, controls and calibration verification fluids. In particular, we provide products used for drugs-of-abuse testing; therapeutic drug monitoring, including immunosuppressant drug testing; thyroid hormone testing; serum toxicology; clinical chemistry; immunology; hematology; coagulation; glucose tolerance testing; first trimester screening; tumor markers testing; and biomarkers testing for sepsis, acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. We also private label many of our reagents and controls for major in vitro diagnostics companies through OEM arrangements. In many instances, we will work with customers or partners to develop new products and applications for their instrument platforms.
 
We have developed one of the broadest menus for drugs-of-abuse immunoassays. We also offer a line of immunosuppressant drug immunoassays that can be used on a variety of clinical chemistry analyzers.
 
Our clinical chemistry systems include analyzers and reagents to analyze and measure routine blood and urine chemistry, such as glucose and cholesterol; and advanced testing for specific proteins, therapeutic drug monitoring and drugs-of-abuse. Our diagnostic test range currently covers approximately 80 different validated methods. We also provide pre- and post-analytical automation for preparation of blood specimens before and after analysis, and specialty diagnostic tests based on patented biomarkers for sepsis, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, as well as intensive care treatments and prenatal screening.
 
Transplant Diagnostics
 
Our transplant diagnostics products include human leukocyte antigen (“HLA”) typing and testing for the organ transplant market. Our diagnostic tests are used by transplant centers for tissue typing, primarily to determine the compatibility of donors and recipients pre-transplant, and to detect the presence of antibodies post-transplant that can lead to transplant rejection. These transplant diagnostic tests are widely used across the transplant-testing workflow to improve patient outcomes. Our transplant diagnostic offerings include several lines of HLA typing and antibody detection assays utilizing serological, molecular, ELISA, flow, and Luminex xMAP technologies.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Microbiology
 
Our microbiology offerings include dehydrated and prepared culture media, collection and transport systems, instrumentation and consumables to detect pathogens in blood, diagnostic and rapid direct specimen tests, quality-control products and associated products for the microbiology laboratory. Our products help customers worldwide to diagnose infectious disease; determine appropriate antimicrobial therapy; implement effective infection control programs; and detect microbial contamination of their products or manufacturing facilities.
 
Within the food and pharmaceutical industries, our products are used to assure the safety and quality of consumer products by monitoring production environments; raw materials and end products for bacterial contamination; and animal health in the dairy industry.
 
Anatomical Pathology
 
Our anatomical pathology offerings include a broad portfolio of products primarily for cancer diagnosis and medical research in histology, cytology and hematology applications. These products include a wide range of instruments, consumables and reagents for specimen collection and transport, tissue preparation, staining and immunohistochemistry assays and controls. Reagent and consumable products include sample collection and preservation products used to ensure specimen integrity; tissue cassettes and reagents necessary for same-day, high-quality specimen processing; blades and paraffin used to section tissue; and a wide range of leading stains. Also included are a full line of immunohistochemistry antibodies, detection systems, ancillaries and controls.
 
We also provide a complete range of anatomical pathology instruments including cassette and slide labeling systems, which enable on-demand slide and cassette printing; tissue processors for same-day tissue-processing; superior reagent management and higher lab efficiency; embedding stations, microtomes and cryostats used to section tissue; and automated staining and cover slip systems used for primary and immunohistochemistry staining. In cytology, we offer low-speed centrifugation technology coupled with patented EZ cytofunnels to deposit a thin layer of cells onto a microscope slide to ensure better cell capture and better preservation of cell morphology. We manufacture high-quality flat-sheet glass to produce medical disposable products such as microscope slides, plates, cover glass, and microarray substrates serving the medical, diagnostics, and scientific communities. We also offer specialized hydrophobic, adhesive, and fluorescent slides through proprietary coating techniques.
 
Healthcare Market Channel
 
Our Healthcare Market channel offerings include a broad array of consumables, diagnostic kits and reagents, equipment, instruments, solutions and services for hospitals, clinical laboratories, reference laboratories, physicians’ offices and other clinical testing facilities. These products are manufactured by Thermo Fisher and third parties.
 
Healthcare Market products and solutions focus on the collection, transportation and analysis of biological samples. Major product lines include anatomical pathology, molecular diagnostic, and cardiac risk management solutions; blood collection devices; and an extensive portfolio of rapid diagnostic testing kits.
 
Laboratory Products and Services Segment
 
Our Laboratory Products and Services segment offers virtually everything needed for the laboratory. Our unique combination of self-manufactured and sourced products and extensive service offering enables our customers to focus on their core activities and helps them to be more efficient, productive and cost effective. We serve the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, academic, government and other research and industrial markets, as well as the clinical laboratory through four key businesses: Laboratory Equipment, Laboratory Consumables, Research and Safety Market Channel, and BioPharma Services.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Laboratory Equipment
 
Our Laboratory Equipment products are used primarily by pharmaceutical companies for drug discovery and development and by biotechnology companies and universities for life science research to advance the prevention and cure of diseases and enhance quality of life. This offering consists of equipment, accessories, and services for sample preparation, storage and protection, and analysis, with product categories including:
 
 
Sample Preparation and Preservation Equipment protects our customers’ chemical and biological samples and supports the growth of cells and organisms in optimal conditions such as temperature, carbon dioxide and humidity. This offering includes a comprehensive range of incubators and other related products.
 
 
Cold Storage Equipment such as our leading laboratory refrigerators and freezers, ultralow-temperature freezers and cryopreservation storage tanks maintain samples in a cold environment to protect them from degradation.
 
 
Centrifugation Products are used to separate biological matrices and inorganic materials. Our broad range includes microcentrifuges, which are used primarily for the purification of nucleic acids in the molecular biology laboratory; general use bench-top centrifuges for processing clinical samples such as blood and urine; and our floor models, which are used for large-volume blood processing or in laboratories with high-throughput needs. Our super-speed and ultra-speed models are used for applications such as protein purification.
 
 
Biological Safety Cabinets enable technicians to handle samples without risk to themselves or their environment and without risk of cross-contamination of samples. These cabinets, equipped with filtered-air ventilation, controlled laminar flow and an ultraviolet source, can be used for tissue culture; handling of infectious samples; forensic analysis; bioterrorism research; and other applications.
 
 
Temperature Control Products include heated bath circulators, immersion coolers, recirculating chillers, water baths, and dry baths in a range of sizes, temperatures and configurations for life science, analytical chemistry, manufacturing and quality-control applications.
 
 
Water Analysis Instruments include meters, electrodes and solutions for the measurement of pH, ions, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and other key parameters in the lab and production line. Based upon electrochemical and optical sensing technologies, these products are used wherever the quality of water and water-based products or processes are critical, such as QA/QC in the food and beverage industry, chemical and pharmaceutical production, and for environmental compliance.
 
 
Other Laboratory Equipment includes water purification systems, shakers, vacuum concentrators, microbiological incubators, ovens, furnaces, hotplates, stirrers, stirring hotplates, and other related products.
 
Laboratory Consumables
 
Our laboratory consumables products include plastics, glass and related equipment, which customers use every day to support their scientific research; drug discovery and development; quality and process control; and clinical and basic research and development needs. Our product categories include cell culture and bioproduction; sample preparation and storage; liquid handling; detection instruments; and specialty products and services.
 
 
Cell Culture and Bioproduction Products support customers in research to production-scale activities. We offer a broad range of surface technologies for different application needs, including applications with traditional stem cell and human stem cell lines. Products include chamber slides, dishes, multidishes, flasks and gas permeable technologies. We also offer a complete line of serological pipettes and conical tubes to address cell-culture sample handling, as well as cell factories and roller bottles, and research serum and media products. These products are widely used in research and in the manufacture of vaccines and biotherapeutics.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
 
Sample Preparation and Storage Products include a full line of centrifugation consumables as well as vials and organization systems for ultralow temperature and cryogenic storage, with specific products designed for low protein binding and low DNA binding. We also offer containers for packaging life science and diagnostic reagents as well for the storage and transport of bulk intermediates and active pharmaceutical ingredients.
 
 
Liquid Handling Products include a leading offering of laboratory pipette tips and a complementary range of handheld and automated pipetting systems, supporting low- through high-throughput activity. These products optimize productivity and ergonomics, and ensure accurate results.
 
 
Detection Instruments include microplate readers, washers, purification systems, and PCR and qPCR instruments. These instruments offer researchers in the fields of cancer research, drug development, proteomics, and genomics efficiency, high-quality performance and accurate results.
 
 
Specialty Products and Services include a complete selection of clinical specimen collection, drug-of-abuse collection kits and environmental and food-safety glass and plastic vials, bottles and containers. We also manufacture plastic transfer pipettes and general purpose clinical laboratory consumables. We also offer containers for breast milk collection, storage and feeding primarily used in neo-natal units and by lactation specialists. In addition, we provide OEM and custom kit assembly services for clinical and drugs-of-abuse test kits.
 
Research and Safety Market Channel
 
Our Research and Safety Market channel serves academic, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, government and industrial customers. We go to market through our broad sales force, printed catalogs in eight different languages, a state-of-the-art website, www.fishersci.com, containing full product content for more than 370,000 products, and our global network of resellers and distributors. The Fisher Scientific catalog has been published for more than 100 years and is an internationally recognized scientific supply resource.
 
We have an international network of warehouses in our primary markets through which we maintain inventory and coordinate product delivery. With specialized product vaults and warehouse management systems, we are able to handle the complete range of products we offer to our customers. Our transportation capabilities include our dedicated fleet of delivery vehicles as well as parcel shipping capabilities that are closely integrated with our third-party parcel carriers. Throughout the product delivery process, we provide our customers with convenient access to comprehensive electronic systems that offer automated catalog search, product order and invoicing, and payment capabilities.
 
Our channel offers a mix of products that are manufactured by Thermo Fisher, by third parties for us on a private-label basis, and by third parties under their brand but offered for sale exclusively through us. We also offer a broad range of third-party products representing leading industry brand names on a non-exclusive basis.
 
Our research products include a complete offering of laboratory products, ranging from capital equipment and instruments to chemicals to consumable products. Our safety products include clean-room and controlled-environment supplies, personal protective equipment, firefighting, military, and first responder equipment and supplies, and environmental monitoring and sampling equipment. Our education products include science-related and laboratory products for the K-12 and secondary education market.
 
Our Cole-Parmer offerings include a wide variety of laboratory and industrial fluid-handling products, instrumentation, equipment, and supplies for the industrial, government, academic, biotechnology, pharmaceutical and healthcare markets.
 
Our Doe & Ingalls offerings include chemical distribution and supply chain services that help life science and advanced technology manufacturers have reliable, secure supply chains for their chemical raw materials.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
    In addition to our broad product offerings, we offer a variety of specialized services to our customers through our Unity Lab Services team, including training, equipment servicing and asset management, and dedicated supply management personnel. We also offer scientific support services including desktop delivery, coordination of instrument calibration and service, and on-site customer service.
 
BioPharma Services
 
Our BioPharma Services offerings include global services for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies engaged in clinical trials, including specialized packaging; over-encapsulation; multi-lingual and specialized labeling and distribution for phase I through phase IV clinical trials; biological-specimen management; specialty pharmaceutical logistics; and clinical supply-chain management. Thermo Fisher’s biorepository business provides temperature-controlled repository services for pharmaceutical, biotechnology, university, government, clinical and blood-processing customers. Our biorepository services business stores pharmacological and biospecimen samples at commercial sites. Additional services include inventory management, validation, business continuity, and repository management and transportation capabilities, resulting in a complete cold chain sample management solution.
 
Life Technologies Businesses and Related 2014 Segment Changes and Divestitures
 
With the acquisition of Life Technologies, we have enhanced our scale and depth of capabilities in research, specialty diagnostics and applied markets. We have established a new reporting segment, called Life Sciences Solutions, and effective January 1, 2014, the company’s financial performance will be reported in four segments reflecting the following changes:
 
 
The new Life Sciences Solutions Segment consists of the majority of the former Life Technologies businesses and Thermo Fisher biosciences businesses.
 
 
Thermo Fisher’s global chemicals business has moved from the Biosciences business in the Analytical Technologies Segment to the Laboratory Products and Services Segment.
 
 
Thermo Fisher’s Analytical Technologies Segment has been renamed Analytical Instruments to reflect the transfer of the biosciences businesses to other segments, as mentioned above.
 
 
Two small specialty diagnostics businesses within Life Technologies have become part of the Specialty Diagnostics Segment.
 
 
Thermo Fisher has agreed to divest of its sera and media, gene modulation and magnetic beads businesses.
 
The systems and reagents offered through Life Sciences Solutions enable, simplify and accelerate a broad spectrum of biological research of genes, proteins and cells within academic and life science research, clinical research and commercial applications. Our scientific expertise assists in making biodiscovery research techniques more effective and efficient for pharmaceutical, biotechnology, agricultural, clinical, government and academic scientific professionals with backgrounds in a wide range of scientific disciplines. The new Life Sciences Solutions Segment includes three primary businesses – Biosciences; Genetic, Medical & Applied Sciences; and BioProduction.
 
Biosciences
 
Our new Biosciences business includes Life Technologies’ former Life Sciences business (with the exception of its bioproduction business) combined with Thermo Fisher’s molecular and protein biology reagents businesses from its former biosciences business.
 
Our biosciences offerings include:
 
 
Reagents, instruments, and consumables used for protein biology, molecular biology, and cell imaging and analysis. The portfolio includes antibodies and products for protein purification, detection, modification, and analysis; and products for nucleic acid sequencing, detection and purification for high content analysis. Many of these products are also used in applied markets, including agriculture, forensics, diagnostics product development, and toxicology research.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
 
Molecular Probes fluorescence-based technologies, which facilitate the labeling of molecules for biological research and drug discovery. This product line also leverages a wide range of cell analysis instruments, such as the Attune Acoustic Focusing Cytometer, and imaging platforms to enable fluorescence microscopy.
 
 
Gibco cell culture media and reagents for preserving and growing mammalian cells, which are used in many life science research applications. This product line also features the cell therapy systems line of growth media, some of which has received FDA 510K clearance in recent years.
 
 
Invitrogen products, which are among the most cited in research papers, and are comprised of tools used for genetic engineering, amplification, quantification and analysis. This product line includes stem cell reprogramming kits, used for the development of iPS cells; transfection reagents, which are widely used to transfer genetic elements into living cells, enable the study of protein function and gene regulation; RNA interference reagents, which enable scientists to selectively “turn off” genes in biology systems to gain insight into biological pathways; along with gene editing tools and gene synthesis products.
 
 
Ambion products, consisting primarily of tools used for RNA isolation, the first step for performing many molecular techniques, such as NGS, real-time qPCR, etc. Specific products include: Dynabeads, Cells-to-CT, PUlreLink and MagMax.
 
 
Novex high-performance protein analysis products, including pre-cast electrophoresis gels for separating nucleic acids and proteins, and western blotting and staining tools. Other products include antibodies, which allow researchers to capture and label proteins, visualize their location through the use of dyes, and discern their role in disease.
 
Genetic, Medical & Applied Sciences
 
Our new Genetic, Medical and Applied Sciences business includes Life Technologies’ Ion Torrent, Genetic Analysis and Medical Sciences businesses, with the addition of the Human Identification (HID) and Food and Animal Health business from Life Technologies’ Applied Sciences group. This business combines a wide variety of instruments and related reagents used to analyze DNA across a broad range of applications in research, clinical and applied markets.
 
Our Genetic, Medical and Applied Sciences offerings include:
 
 
Genetic Analysis, which primarily provides qPCR, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms and reagents. –These products are used to discover sources of genetic and epigenetic variation, to catalog the DNA structure of organisms, and to verify the composition of genetic research material. These approaches to genetic analysis are used in clinical research, human identification (HID), animal health and food safety applications. In addition, our PCR and real-time PCR systems, reagents and assays enable researchers to amplify and detect targeted nucleic acids (DNA and RNA molecules for a host of applications in molecular biology.
 
 
Medical Sciences provides qPCR and NGS technologies and assays for applications in molecular diagnostics, diagnostic development, clinical and translational research, and public health monitoring and is primarily focused on cancer and inherited disease.
 
 
Human Identification, which provides instrumentation (qPCR, CE sequencing and NGS) and reagents to forensic laboratories that analyze DNA recovered from crime scenes. These products are routinely used to positively convict criminals and exonerate the innocent. Primary customers include the FBI and police departments around the world.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
 
Animal Health/Food Safety offers qPCR, Elisa, Sample Preparation and NGS platforms for analysis applications in animal health and food safety. In animal health, we provide kits that are used to monitor health of farm animals by detection of viruses and pathogens. In food safety, we provide solutions to detect pathogens commonly at the root of many outbreaks: Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, etc. We also provide the beverage industry with kits used to monitor bacterial contamination during beer and wine production.
 
BioProduction
 
The new BioProduction business includes Thermo Fisher’s bioprocessing business and Life Technologies’ bioproduction business. This business supports developers and manufacturers of biological-based therapeutics and vaccines with a portfolio of premium solutions and services focused on upstream cell culture, downstream purification, analytics for detection and quantitation of process/product impurities, and a suite of single-use solutions spanning the biologics workflow.
 
Our bioproduction offerings include:
 
 
Single Use Technologies, which includes our Thermo Scientific single-use bioproduction solutions that deliver faster turnaround and set-up times, require minimal validation, reduce investment and running costs, and increase flexibility of manufacturing capacity.
 
 
Cell Culture Media and Services, which includes our Gibco media solutions, used by leading biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to grow cells in controlled conditions and enable the large scale cGMP manufacturing of life saving drugs and vaccines, along with associated services to optimize the productivity of these production platforms.
 
 
Chromatography, which includes POROS products that deliver unmatched capacity and resolution for process-scale bioseparations, and CaptureSelect affinity products that offer a broad set of scalable options for the purification of antibodies, antibody fragments and proteins.
 
 
Pharma Analytics, which are rapid molecular products that deliver accurate results in less than four hours for contaminant detection, identification and quantitation.
 
 
Cell Therapy, which are scalable solutions for the manufacture of cell therapy-based drugs.
 
Sales and Marketing
 
We market and sell our products and services through a direct sales force, customer-service professionals, electronic commerce, third-party distributors and various catalogs.
 
We have approximately 14,300 sales and service personnel including over 2,000 highly trained technical specialists who enable us to better meet the needs of our more technical end-users. We also provide customers with product standardization and other supply-chain-management services to reduce procurement costs.
 
New Products and Research and Development
 
Our business includes the development and introduction of new products and may include entry into new business segments. During 2013, 2012 and 2011, we spent $396 million, $376 million and $340 million, respectively, on research and development. We anticipate that we will continue to make significant expenditures for research and development as we seek to provide a continuing flow of innovative products to maintain and improve our competitive position.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Raw Materials
 
Our management team believes that we have a readily available supply of raw materials for all of our significant products from various sources. We do not anticipate any difficulties obtaining the raw materials essential to our business.
 
Raw-material and fuel prices are subject to fluctuations due to market conditions. We employ many strategies, including the use of alternative materials, to mitigate the effect of these fluctuations on our results.
 
Patents, Licenses and Trademarks
 
Patents are important in all segments of our business. No particular patent, or related group of patents, is so important, however, that its loss would significantly affect our operations as a whole. Where appropriate, we seek patent protection for inventions and developments made by our personnel that are incorporated into our products or otherwise fall within our fields of interest. Patent rights resulting from work sponsored by outside parties do not always accrue exclusively to the company and may be limited by agreements or contracts.
 
We protect some of our technology as trade secrets and, where appropriate, we use trademarks or register trademarks used in connection with products. We also enter into license agreements with others to grant and/or receive rights to patents and know-how.
 
Seasonal Influences
 
Revenues in the fourth quarter are historically stronger than in other quarters due to the capital spending patterns of industrial, pharmaceutical and government customers. Sales of flu tests and related diagnostic products vary quarter to quarter and year to year based on the severity and duration of flu season. Sales of allergy tests vary quarter to quarter and year to year based on the severity and duration of airborne pollen allergens.
 
Working Capital Requirements
 
There are no special inventory requirements or credit terms extended to customers that would have a material adverse effect on our working capital.
 
Dependency on a Single Customer
 
There is no single customer the loss of which would have a material adverse effect on our business. No customer accounted for more than 5% of our total revenues in any of the past three years.
 
Backlog
 
Our backlog of firm orders at year-end 2013 and 2012 was as follows:
 
(In millions)
 
2013
   
2012
 
             
Analytical Technologies
  $ 1,047.2     $ 1,014.6  
Specialty Diagnostics
    183.0       187.0  
Laboratory Products and Services
    399.0       388.8  
Eliminations
    (24.9 )     (12.8 )
                 
    $ 1,604.3     $ 1,577.6  

We believe that virtually all of our backlog at the end of 2013 will be filled during 2014. The table above does not include backlog of Life Technologies which was acquired on February 3, 2014.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Government Contracts
 
Although the company transacts business with various government agencies, no government contract is of such magnitude that a renegotiation of profits or termination of the contract at the election of the government agency would have a material adverse effect on the company’s financial results.
 
Competition
 
The company encounters aggressive and able competition in virtually all of the markets we serve. Because of the diversity of our products and services, we face many different types of competitors and competition. Our competitors include a broad range of manufacturers and third-party distributors. In general, competitive climates in the markets we serve are characterized by changing technology and customer demands that require continuing research and development. Our success in these markets primarily depends on the following factors:
 
·  
technical performance and advances in technology that result in new products and improved price/performance ratios;
 
·  
product differentiation, availability and reliability;
 
·  
the depth of our capabilities;
 
·  
our reputation among customers as a quality provider of products and services;
 
·  
customer service and support;
 
·  
active research and application-development programs; and
 
·  
relative prices of our products and services.
 
Environmental Matters
 
We are subject to various laws and governmental regulations concerning environmental matters and employee safety and health in the United States and other countries. U.S. federal environmental legislation that affects us includes the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). We are also subject to regulation by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) concerning employee safety and health matters. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), OSHA, and other federal agencies have the authority to promulgate regulations that have an effect on our operations.
 
In addition to these federal activities, various states have been delegated certain authority under the aforementioned federal statutes as well as having authority over these matters under state laws. Many state and local governments have adopted environmental and employee safety and health laws and regulations, some of which are similar to federal requirements.
 
A number of our operations involve the handling, manufacturing, use or sale of substances that are or could be classified as toxic or hazardous materials within the meaning of applicable laws. Consequently, some risk of environmental harm is inherent in our operations and products, as it is with other companies engaged in similar businesses.
 
Our expenses for environmental requirements are incurred generally for ongoing compliance and historical remediation matters. Based on current information, we believe that these compliance costs are not material. For historical remediation obligations, our expenditures relate primarily to the cost of permitting, installing, and operating and maintaining groundwater-treatment systems and other remedial measures.
 
Our Fair Lawn and Somerville, New Jersey, facilities are the subject of administrative consent orders issued by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection in 1984. Our Rockford, Illinois, facility is subject to a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action program administered by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. We are required to maintain groundwater-remediation activities at these sites. As the owner of the Fair Lawn facility, we are listed as a potentially responsible party for remediation within an area called the Fair Lawn Wellfields Superfund Site.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
We record accruals for environmental liabilities based on current interpretations of environmental laws and regulations when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of such liability can be reasonably estimated. We calculate estimates based upon several factors, including reports prepared by environmental specialists and management’s knowledge and experience with these environmental matters. We include in these estimates potential costs for investigation, remediation and operation and maintenance of cleanup sites. Accrued liabilities for environmental matters totaled $29 million at December 31, 2013. The liability for environmental matters associated with Fisher was recorded at the date of merger at its fair value and as such was discounted to its net present value.
 
These environmental liabilities do not include third-party recoveries to which we may be entitled. We believe that our accrual is adequate for the environmental liabilities we currently expect to incur. As a result, we believe that our ultimate liability with respect to environmental matters will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. However, we may be subject to additional remedial or compliance costs due to future events, such as changes in existing laws and regulations, changes in agency direction or enforcement policies, developments in remediation technologies, changes in the conduct of our operations, and the effect of changes in accounting rules, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
 
Our recently acquired Life Technologies subsidiary also has certain environmental liabilities, including from its prior acquisitions, such as obligations for the clean-up of formerly-owned locations as well as several hazardous waste sites under state and federal environmental laws, in connection with its acquisitions of Dexter Corporation in 2000 and Applied Biosystems in 2008. Life Technologies has reserves accrued for these matters. Unexpected results related to the investigation and clean-up of any of these sites could cause our financial exposure in these matters to exceed stated reserves, requiring us to allocate additional funds and other resources to address these environmental liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
 
Regulatory Affairs
 
Our operations, and some of the products we offer, are subject to a number of complex and stringent laws and regulations governing the production, handling, transportation and distribution of chemicals, drugs and other similar products, including the operating and security standards of the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, the Food and Drug Administration, and various state boards of pharmacy as well as comparable state and foreign agencies. As Thermo Fisher’s businesses also include export and import activities, we are subject to pertinent laws enforced by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, State and Treasury. In addition, our logistics activities must comply with the rules and regulations of the Department of Transportation, the Federal Aviation Administration and similar foreign agencies. While we believe we are in compliance in all material respects with such laws and regulations, any noncompliance could result in substantial fines or otherwise restrict our ability to provide competitive distribution services and thereby have an adverse effect on our financial condition. To date, none has had a material impact on our operations.
 
We are subject to laws and regulations governing government contracts, and failure to address these laws and regulations or comply with government contracts could harm our business by leading to a reduction in revenue associated with these customers. We have agreements relating to the sale of our products to government entities and, as a result, we are subject to various statutes and regulations that apply to companies doing business with the government. We are also subject to investigation for compliance with the regulations governing government contracts. A failure to comply with these regulations could result in suspension of these contracts, criminal, civil and administrative penalties or debarment.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Number of Employees
 
We have approximately 50,000 employees.
 
Financial Information About Geographic Areas
 
Financial information about geographic areas is summarized in Note 3 to our Consolidated Financial Statements, which begin on page F-1 of this report.
 
Available Information
 
The company files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Exchange Act. The public may read and copy any materials that we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Also, the SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information that issuers, including the company, file electronically with the SEC. The public can obtain any documents that we file with the SEC at www.sec.gov. We also make available free of charge on or through our own website at www.thermofisher.com our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, paper copies of these documents may be obtained free of charge by writing to the company care of its Investor Relations Department at our principal executive office located at 81 Wyman Street, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Business (continued)
 
Executive Officers of the Registrant
 
Name
 
Age
 
Present Title (Fiscal Year First Became Executive Officer)
 
           
Marc N. Casper
  45  
President and Chief Executive Officer (2001)
 
Alan J. Malus
  54  
Executive Vice President (2006)
 
Mark P. Stevenson
  51  
Executive Vice President (2014)
 
Seth H. Hoogasian
  59  
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary (2001)
 
Thomas W. Loewald
  50  
Senior Vice President (2012)
 
Edward A. Pesicka
  46  
Senior Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer (2008)
 
Andrew J. Thomson
  49  
Senior Vice President (2012)
 
Peter M. Wilver
  54  
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2003)
 
Peter E. Hornstra
  54  
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer (2001)
 

Mr. Casper was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer in October 2009. He was Chief Operating Officer from May 2008 to October 2009 and Executive Vice President from November 2006 to October 2009. He was Senior Vice President from December 2003 to November 2006. From December 2001 to December 2003 he was Vice President.
 
Mr. Malus was appointed Executive Vice President of Thermo Fisher Scientific in January 2012 and was appointed President, Laboratory Products and Services in January 2014. He was President, Analytical Technologies from January 2012 to January 2014. He was President, Laboratory Products from July 2008 to January 2012 and was appointed Senior Vice President of Thermo Fisher Scientific in November 2006.
 
Mr. Stevenson was appointed Executive Vice President and President, Life Sciences Solutions in February 2014. Prior to the acquisition of Life Technologies, Mr. Stevenson was President and Chief Operating Officer of Life Technologies from November 2008 to February 2014 and previously President and Chief Operating Officer of Applied Biosystems, Life Technologies’ predecessor entity, from December 2007 to November 2008.
 
Mr. Hoogasian was appointed Senior Vice President in November 2006, Secretary in 2001 and General Counsel in 1992. He was Vice President from 1996 to November 2006.
 
Mr. Loewald was appointed Senior Vice President of Thermo Fisher Scientific in January 2012 and appointed President, Analytical Instruments in January 2014. He was President, Laboratory Products from January 2012 to January 2014. He was appointed President of the Laboratory Equipment business in August 2008, and was President of the Environmental Instruments business from October 2006 until August 2008.
 
Mr. Pesicka was appointed Senior Vice President of Thermo Fisher Scientific in July 2008 and was appointed Chief Commercial Officer in January 2014. He was President, Customer Channels from July 2008 to January 2014. He was President, Research Market from November 2006 to July 2008.
 
Mr. Thomson was appointed Senior Vice President of Thermo Fisher Scientific and President, Specialty Diagnostics in February 2012. He was President of the Clinical Diagnostics business from October 2009 to May 2012 and was Vice President and General Manager for North America for the Microbiology business from January 2009 until October 2009.
 
Mr. Wilver was appointed Senior Vice President in November 2006 and Chief Financial Officer in October 2004. He was Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from October 2004 to November 2006.
 
Mr. Hornstra was appointed Vice President in February 2007 and Chief Accounting Officer in January 2001. He was Corporate Controller from January 1996 to February 2007.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Item 1A.       Risk Factors
 
    Set forth below are the risks that we believe are material to our investors. This section contains forward-looking statements. You should refer to the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on forward-looking statements beginning on page 4.
 
We must develop new products, adapt to rapid and significant technological change and respond to introductions of new products by competitors to remain competitive. Our growth strategy includes significant investment in and expenditures for product development. We sell our products in several industries that are characterized by rapid and significant technological changes, frequent new product and service introductions and enhancements and evolving industry standards. Competitive factors include technological innovation, price, service and delivery, breadth of product line, customer support, e-business capabilities and the ability to meet the special requirements of customers. Our competitors may adapt more quickly to new technologies and changes in customers’ requirements than we can. Without the timely introduction of new products, services and enhancements, our products and services will likely become technologically obsolete over time, in which case our revenue and operating results would suffer.
 
Many of our existing products and those under development are technologically innovative and require significant planning, design, development and testing at the technological, product and manufacturing-process levels. Our customers use many of our products to develop, test and manufacture their own products. As a result, we must anticipate industry trends and develop products in advance of the commercialization of our customers’ products. If we fail to adequately predict our customers’ needs and future activities, we may invest heavily in research and development of products and services that do not lead to significant revenue.
 
It may be difficult for us to implement our strategies for improving internal growth. Some of the markets in which we compete have been flat or declining over the past several years. To address this issue, we are pursuing a number of strategies to improve our internal growth, including:
 
    •  strengthening our presence in selected geographic markets;
 
    •  allocating research and development funding to products with higher growth prospects;
 
    •  developing new applications for our technologies;
 
    •  expanding our service offerings;
 
    •  continuing key customer initiatives;
 
    •  combining sales and marketing operations in appropriate markets to compete more effectively;
 
    •  finding new markets for our products; and
 
    •  continuing the development of commercial tools and infrastructure to increase and support cross-selling opportunities of products and services to take advantage of
       our depth in product offerings.
 
We may not be able to successfully implement these strategies, and these strategies may not result in the expected growth of our business.
 
Our business is affected by general economic conditions and related uncertainties affecting markets in which we operate. Our business is affected by general economic conditions, both inside and outside the U.S. If the global economy and financial markets, or economic conditions in Europe, the U.S. or other key markets, are unstable, it could adversely affect the business, results of operations and financial condition of the company and its customers, distributors, and suppliers, having the effect of:
 
    •  reducing demand for some of our products;
 
    •  increasing the rate of order cancellations or delays;
 
    •  increasing the risk of excess and obsolete inventories;
 
    •  increasing pressure on the prices for our products and services; and
 
    •  creating longer sales cycles and greater difficulty in collecting sales proceeds.
 
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Risk Factors (continued)
 
For example, recent developments in Europe have created uncertainty with respect to the ability of certain European countries to continue to service their sovereign debt obligations. This debt crisis and related European financial restructuring efforts may cause the value of the euro to deteriorate, reducing the purchasing power of our European customers and reducing our U.S. dollar revenues as translated from the euro. In addition, the European crisis could result in customers in Europe taking longer to pay for products they have purchased from us, or being unable to pay at all. The continued weakness in world economies makes the strength and timing of any economic recovery uncertain, and there can be no assurance that global economic conditions will not deteriorate further.
 
Demand for some of our products depends on capital spending policies of our customers and on government funding policies. Our customers include pharmaceutical and chemical companies, laboratories, universities, healthcare providers, government agencies and public and private research institutions. Many factors, including public policy spending priorities, available resources and product and economic cycles, have a significant effect on the capital spending policies of these entities.
 
Spending by some of these customers fluctuates based on budget allocations and the timely passage of the annual federal budget. An impasse in federal government budget decisions could lead to substantial delays or reductions in federal spending. The U.S. Government has been unable to reach agreement on budget reduction measures required by the Budget Control Act of 2011. As a result, on March 1, 2013, an enforcement mechanism known as sequestration went into effect, which will trigger a total of $1.2 trillion in spending reductions over the next decade, divided between domestic and defense spending. Unless Congress and the Administration take further action, government funding would be reduced for certain of our customers, including those who are dependent on funding from the National Institutes of Health, which would likely have a significant effect on these entities’ spending policies. These policies in turn can have a significant effect on the demand for our products.
 
Integrating the Life Technologies businesses into Thermo Fisher’s existing businesses may be more difficult, costly or time consuming than expected and the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the transaction may not be fully realized. The success of the acquisition of Life Technologies, including the realization of anticipated benefits and cost savings, will depend, in part, on Thermo Fisher’s ability to successfully combine the businesses of Thermo Fisher and Life Technologies. The integration may be more difficult, costly or time consuming than expected. It is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of key employees or the disruption of each company’s ongoing businesses or that the alignment of standards, controls, procedures and policies may adversely affect the combined company’s ability to maintain relationships with clients, customers, suppliers and employees or to fully achieve the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the transaction. The loss of key employees could adversely affect Thermo Fisher’s ability to successfully conduct its business in the markets in which Life Technologies operated prior to closing, which could have an adverse effect on our financial results and the value of our common stock. Other potential difficulties of combining the business of Thermo Fisher and Life Technologies include unanticipated issues in integrating manufacturing, logistics, information communications and other systems.
 
If we experience difficulties with the integration process, the anticipated benefits of the transaction may not be realized fully or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected. Integration efforts between the two companies may also divert management attention and resources. These integration matters could have an adverse effect on the company.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Risk Factors (continued)
 
As a multinational corporation, we are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could adversely affect our cash flows and results of operations. International markets contribute a substantial portion of our revenues, and we intend to continue expanding our presence in these regions. The exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates takes on different forms. International revenues and costs are subject to the risk that fluctuations in exchange rates could adversely affect product demand and the profitability in U.S. dollars of products and services provided by us in international markets, where payment for our products and services is made in the local currency. As a multinational corporation, our businesses occasionally invoice third-party customers in currencies other than the one in which they primarily do business (the “functional currency”). Movements in the invoiced currency relative to the functional currency could adversely impact our cash flows and our results of operations. In addition, reported sales made in non-U.S. currencies by our international businesses, when translated into U.S. dollars for financial reporting purposes, fluctuate due to exchange rate movement. Should our international sales grow, exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates could have a larger effect on our financial results. In 2012, currency translation had an unfavorable effect of $227 million on the revenues of our continuing operations due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies in which the company sells products and services, and in 2013, currency translation had an unfavorable effect on revenues of our continuing operations of $36 million.
 
Healthcare reform legislation could adversely impact us. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could have an adverse impact on us. Some of the potential consequences, such as a reduction in governmental support of healthcare services or adverse changes to the delivery or pricing of healthcare services or products or mandated benefits, may cause healthcare-industry participants to purchase fewer of our products and services or to reduce the prices they are willing to pay for our products or services.
 
Our inability to protect our intellectual property could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, third parties may claim that we infringe their intellectual property, and we could suffer significant litigation or licensing expense as a result. We place considerable emphasis on obtaining patent and trade secret protection for significant new technologies, products and processes because of the length of time and expense associated with bringing new products through the development process and into the marketplace. Our success depends in part on our ability to develop patentable products and obtain and enforce patent protection for our products both in the United States and in other countries. We own numerous U.S. and foreign patents, and we intend to file additional applications, as appropriate, for patents covering our products. Patents may not be issued for any pending or future patent applications owned by or licensed to us, and the claims allowed under any issued patents may not be sufficiently broad to protect our technology. Any issued patents owned by or licensed to us may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, and the rights under these patents may not provide us with competitive advantages. In addition, competitors may design around our technology or develop competing technologies. Intellectual property rights may also be unavailable or limited in some foreign countries, which could make it easier for competitors to capture increased market position. We could incur substantial costs to defend ourselves in suits brought against us or in suits in which we may assert our patent rights against others. An unfavorable outcome of any such litigation could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
We also rely on trade secrets and proprietary know-how with which we seek to protect our products, in part, by confidentiality agreements with our collaborators, employees and consultants. These agreements may be breached and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently developed by our competitors.
 
Third parties may assert claims against us to the effect that we are infringing on their intellectual property rights. With our recent acquisition of Life Technologies, we have become party to several lawsuits in which plaintiffs claim we infringe their intellectual property. We could incur substantial costs and diversion of management resources in defending these claims, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, parties making these claims could secure a judgment awarding substantial damages, as well as injunctive or other equitable relief, which could effectively block our ability to make, use, sell, distribute, or market our products and services in the United States or abroad. In the event that a claim relating to intellectual property is asserted against us, or third parties not affiliated with us hold pending or issued patents that relate to our products or technology, we may seek licenses to such intellectual property or challenge those patents. However, we may be unable to obtain these licenses on commercially reasonable terms, if at all, and our challenge of the patents may be unsuccessful. Our failure to obtain the necessary licenses or other rights could prevent the sale, manufacture, or distribution of our products and, therefore, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Changes in governmental regulations may reduce demand for our products or increase our expenses. We compete in many markets in which we and our customers must comply with federal, state, local and international regulations, such as environmental, health and safety and food and drug regulations. We develop, configure and market our products to meet customer needs created by those regulations. Any significant change in regulations could reduce demand for our products or increase our expenses. For example, many of our instruments are marketed to the pharmaceutical industry for use in discovering and developing drugs. Changes in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s regulation of the drug discovery and development process could have an adverse effect on the demand for these products.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Risk Factors (continued)
 
If our security products do not operate as designed and fail to detect explosives or radiation, we could be exposed to product liability and related claims for which we may not have adequate insurance coverage. Products currently or previously sold by our environmental and process instruments and radiation measurement and security instruments businesses include fixed and portable instruments used for chemical, radiation and trace explosives detection. These products are used in airports, embassies, cargo facilities, border crossings and other high-threat facilities for the detection and prevention of terrorist acts. If any of these products were to malfunction, it is possible that explosive or radioactive material could fail to be detected by our product, which could lead to product liability claims. There are also many other factors beyond our control that could lead to liability claims, such as the reliability and competence of the customers’ operators and the training of such operators. Any such product liability claims brought against us could be significant and any adverse determination may result in liabilities in excess of our insurance coverage. Although we carry product liability insurance, we cannot be certain that our current insurance will be sufficient to cover these claims or that it can be maintained on acceptable terms, if at all.
 
Our inability to complete pending acquisitions or to successfully integrate any new or previous acquisitions could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our business strategy includes the acquisition of technologies and businesses that complement or augment our existing products and services. Certain acquisitions may be difficult to complete for a number of reasons, including the need for antitrust and/or other regulatory approvals. Any acquisition we may complete may be made at a substantial premium over the fair value of the net identifiable assets of the acquired company. Further, we may not be able to integrate acquired businesses successfully into our existing businesses, make such businesses profitable, or realize anticipated cost savings or synergies, if any, from these acquisitions, which could adversely affect our business.
 
Moreover, we have acquired many companies and businesses. As a result of these acquisitions, we recorded significant goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets (tradenames) on our balance sheet, which amount to approximately $12.50 billion and $1.34 billion, respectively, as of December 31, 2013 and we will record additional goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets in connection with the Life Technologies Acquisition. We assess the realizability of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually as well as whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that these assets may be impaired. These events or circumstances would generally include operating losses or a significant decline in earnings associated with the acquired business or asset. Our ability to realize the value of the goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets will depend on the future cash flows of these businesses. These cash flows in turn depend in part on how well we have integrated these businesses. If we are not able to realize the value of the goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets, we may be required to incur material charges relating to the impairment of those assets.
 
We are subject to laws and regulations governing government contracts, and failure to address these laws and regulations or comply with government contracts could harm our business by leading to a reduction in revenue associated with these customers. We have agreements relating to the sale of our products to government entities and, as a result, we are subject to various statutes and regulations that apply to companies doing business with the government. The laws governing government contracts differ from the laws governing private contracts and government contracts may contain pricing terms and conditions that are not applicable to private contracts. We are also subject to investigation for compliance with the regulations governing government contracts. A failure to comply with these regulations could result in suspension of these contracts, criminal, civil and administrative penalties or debarment.
 
Because we compete directly with certain of our larger customers and product suppliers, our results of operations could be adversely affected in the short term if these customers or suppliers abruptly discontinue or significantly modify their relationship with us. Our largest customer in the laboratory products business is also a significant competitor. Our business may be harmed in the short term if our competitive relationship in the marketplace with certain of our large customers results in a discontinuation of their purchases from us. In addition, we manufacture products that compete directly with products that we source from third-party suppliers. We also source competitive products from multiple suppliers. Our business could be adversely affected in the short term if any of our large third-party suppliers abruptly discontinues selling products to us.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Risk Factors (continued)
 
Because we rely heavily on third-party package-delivery services, a significant disruption in these services or significant increases in prices may disrupt our ability to ship products, increase our costs and lower our profitability. We ship a significant portion of our products to our customers through independent package delivery companies, such as Federal Express in the U.S. and DHL in Europe. We also maintain a small fleet of vehicles dedicated to the delivery of our products and ship our products through other carriers, including national and regional trucking firms, overnight carrier services and the U.S. Postal Service. If one or more of these third-party package-delivery providers were to experience a major work stoppage, preventing our products from being delivered in a timely fashion or causing us to incur additional shipping costs we could not pass on to our customers, our costs could increase and our relationships with certain of our customers could be adversely affected. In addition, if one or more of these third-party package-delivery providers were to increase prices, and we were not able to find comparable alternatives or make adjustments in our delivery network, our profitability could be adversely affected.
 
We are required to comply with a wide variety of laws and regulations, and are subject to regulation by various federal, state and foreign agencies. For example, some of our operations are subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and similar international agencies. These regulations govern a wide variety of product activities, from design and development to labeling, manufacturing, promotion, sales and distribution. If we fail to comply with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s regulations or those of similar international agencies, we may have to recall products and/or cease their manufacture and distribution, which would increase our costs and reduce our revenues.
 
We are also subject to a variety of federal, state, local and international laws and regulations that govern, among other things, the importation and exportation of products, the handling, transportation and manufacture of substances that could be classified as hazardous, and our business practices in the U.S. and abroad such as anti-corruption and anti-competition laws. A failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in criminal, civil and administrative penalties.
 
New regulations related to “conflict minerals” may cause us to incur additional expenses and could limit the supply and increase the cost of certain metals used in manufacturing our products. On August 22, 2012, the SEC adopted a new rule requiring disclosures by public companies of specified minerals, known as conflict minerals, that are necessary to the functionality or production of products manufactured or contracted to be manufactured. The new rule, which is effective for 2013 and requires a disclosure report to be filed by May 31, 2014, will require companies to perform due diligence, disclose and report whether or not such minerals originate from the Democratic Republic of Congo or an adjoining country. The new rule could affect sourcing at competitive prices and availability in sufficient quantities of certain minerals used in the manufacture of our products, including tantalum, tin, gold and tungsten. The number of suppliers who provide conflict-free minerals may be limited. In addition, there may be material costs associated with complying with the disclosure requirements, such as costs related to determining the source of certain minerals used in our products, as well as costs of possible changes to products, processes, or sources of supply as a consequence of such verification activities. As our supply chain is complex, we may not be able to sufficiently verify the origins of the relevant minerals used in our products through the due diligence procedures that we implement, which may harm our reputation. In addition, we may encounter challenges to satisfy those customers who require that all of the components of our products be certified as conflict-free, which could place us at a competitive disadvantage if we are unable to do so.
 
Our business could be adversely affected by disruptions at our sites. We rely upon our manufacturing operations to produce many of the products we sell and our warehouse facilities to store products, pending sale. Any significant disruption of those operations for any reason, such as strikes or other labor unrest, power interruptions, fire, earthquakes, or other events beyond our control could adversely affect our sales and customer relationships and therefore adversely affect our business. Although most of our raw materials are available from a number of potential suppliers, our operations also depend upon our ability to obtain raw materials at reasonable prices. If we are unable to obtain the materials we need at a reasonable price, we may not be able to produce certain of our products or we may not be able to produce certain of these products at a marketable price, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Risk Factors (continued)
 
Fluctuations in our effective tax rate may adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows. As a global company, we are subject to taxation in numerous countries, states and other jurisdictions. In preparing our financial statements, we record the amount of tax that is payable in each of the countries, states and other jurisdictions in which we operate. Our future effective tax rate, however, may be lower or higher than experienced in the past due to numerous factors, including a change in the mix of our profitability from country to country, changes in accounting for income taxes and recently enacted and future changes in tax laws in jurisdictions in which we operate. Any of these factors could cause us to experience an effective tax rate significantly different from previous periods or our current expectations, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows.
 
We may incur unexpected costs from increases in fuel and raw material prices, which could reduce our earnings and cash flow. Our primary commodity exposures are for fuel, petroleum-based resins and steel. While we may seek to minimize the impact of price increases through higher prices to customers and various cost-saving measures, our earnings and cash flows could be adversely affected in the event these measures are insufficient to cover our costs.
 
Unforeseen problems with the implementation and maintenance of our information systems could have an adverse effect on our operations. As a part of our ongoing effort to upgrade our current information systems, we periodically implement new enterprise resource planning software and other software applications to manage certain of our business operations. As we implement and add functionality, problems could arise that we have not foreseen. Such problems could adversely impact our ability to provide quotes, take customer orders and otherwise run our business in a timely manner. In addition, if our new systems fail to provide accurate pricing and cost data our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.
 
We also rely on our technology infrastructure, among other functions, to interact with suppliers, sell our products and services, fulfill orders and bill, collect and make payments, ship products, provide services and support to customers, track customers, fulfill contractual obligations and otherwise conduct business. Our systems may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from natural disasters, power loss, telecommunication failures, terrorist attacks, computer viruses, computer denial-of-service attacks, unauthorized access to customer or employee data or company trade secrets, and other attempts to harm our systems. When we upgrade or change systems, we may suffer interruptions in service, loss of data or reduced functionality. Certain of our systems are not redundant, and our disaster recovery planning is not sufficient for every eventuality. Despite any precautions we may take, such problems could result in, among other consequences, interruptions in our services, which could harm our reputation and financial results.
 
Our debt may restrict our investment opportunities or limit our activities. As of December 31, 2013, we had approximately $10.49 billion in outstanding indebtedness. In addition, we have a revolving credit facility that provides for up to $1.50 billion of unsecured multi-currency revolving credit and a $5.00 billion term facility that we entered into to partially finance the Life Technologies Acquisition (which we drew down in the first quarter of 2014). We may also obtain additional long-term debt and lines of credit to meet future financing needs, which would have the effect of increasing our total leverage.
 
Our leverage could have negative consequences, including increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions, limiting our ability to obtain additional financing and limiting our ability to acquire new products and technologies through strategic acquisitions.
 
Our ability to make scheduled payments, refinance our obligations or obtain additional financing will depend on our future operating performance and on economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow to meet our obligations. If we are unable to service our debt, refinance our existing debt or obtain additional financing, we may be forced to delay strategic acquisitions, capital expenditures or research and development expenditures.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Risk Factors (continued)
 
Additionally, the agreements governing our debt require that we maintain certain financial ratios, and contain affirmative and negative covenants that restrict our activities by, among other limitations, limiting our ability to incur additional indebtedness, make investments, create liens, sell assets and enter into transactions with affiliates. The covenants in our revolving credit facility and the term credit facility that we entered into to partially finance the Life Technologies Acquisition include a total debt-to-EBITDA ratio and an interest coverage ratio. Specifically, the company has agreed that, so long as any lender has any commitment under either facility, or any loan or other obligation is outstanding under either facility, or any letter of credit is outstanding under the revolving credit facility, it will not permit (as the following terms are defined in the facility) the Consolidated Leverage Ratio (the ratio of consolidated Indebtedness to Consolidated EBITDA) as at the last day of any fiscal quarter to be greater than 5.5 to 1.0 during the first six months after the closing date of the Life Technologies Acquisition (which was February 3, 2014) and decreasing, based on the passage of time, to 3.5 to 1.0, after 18 months or the Consolidated Interest Coverage Ratio (the ratio of Consolidated EBITDA to Consolidated Interest Expense) to be less than 3.0 to 1.0.
 
Our ability to comply with these financial restrictions and covenants is dependent on our future performance, which is subject to prevailing economic conditions and other factors, including factors that are beyond our control such as foreign exchange rates and interest rates. Our failure to comply with any of these restrictions or covenants may result in an event of default under the applicable debt instrument, which could permit acceleration of the debt under that instrument and require us to prepay that debt before its scheduled due date. Also, an acceleration of the debt under certain of our debt instruments would trigger an event of default under other of our debt instruments.
 
Item 1B.       Unresolved Staff Comments
 
Not applicable.
 
Item 2.          Properties
 
The location and general character of our principal properties by segment are as follows:
 
Life Sciences Solutions
 
We own approximately 2.2 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, New York, Utah, Maryland and Illinois within the U.S., and in the U.K., Lithuania and New Zealand. We lease approximately 2.9 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, Texas, Utah, Colorado and Massachusetts within the U.S., and in Singapore, China, Germany, Netherlands and India, under various leases that expire between 2014 and 2028.
 
Analytical Technologies
 
We own approximately 1.8 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, and Minnesota within the U.S., and in Germany, Italy and Switzerland. We lease approximately 1.7 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in Texas, Tennessee, Massachusetts, California, Florida, Pennsylvania and Colorado within the U.S., and in China, Germany, the U.K., Australia, Japan and Canada, under various leases that expire between 2014 and 2029.
 
Specialty Diagnostics
 
We own approximately 2.3 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in Virginia, Texas, Kansas, California and New Hampshire within the U.S., and in Sweden, Germany, the U.K. and Switzerland. We lease approximately 1.6 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, Michigan, Kansas and Wisconsin within the U.S., and in Finland, Germany, the U.K., China, and France under various leases that expire between 2014 and 2024.
 
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Laboratory Products and Services
 
We own approximately 5.9 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory, warehouse and production space, principally in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, Illinois, Ohio, Georgia and Massachusetts within the U.S., and in the U.K., Germany, Canada, Denmark and France. We lease approximately 3.7 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory, warehouse and production space, principally in California, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Maryland, North Carolina, Tennessee and New Jersey within the U.S. and in Australia, Germany, Mexico, the U.K. and Singapore under various leases that expire between 2014 and 2038.
 
Corporate Headquarters
 
We own approximately 81,000 square feet of office space in Massachusetts. We also lease approximately 22,000 square feet of office space in Massachusetts under a lease that expires in 2015.
 
We believe that all of the facilities that we are currently using are in good condition and are suitable and adequate to meet our current needs. If we are unable to renew any of the leases that are due to expire in 2014 or 2015, we believe that suitable replacement properties are available on commercially reasonable terms.
 
Item 3.          Legal Proceedings
 
Our business involves a risk of product liability and other claims in the ordinary course of business. We are a party to various lawsuits and legal proceedings, including individual and consolidated multi-party product liability actions for products we may have distributed or manufactured. These matters have arisen in the ordinary course and conduct of our business, as well as through acquisitions. We believe that some of the costs incurred in defending and ultimately disposing of many of these claims for personal injury and other matters may be covered in part by insurance policies maintained by certain insurance carriers or subject to indemnification by our suppliers or purchasers. Management, after review and consideration with counsel, considers that any ultimate liability with respect to these matters should not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position or cash flows. While liabilities arising from potential future claims could become material, we currently believe, on the basis of our claims history and related factors, that such potential future claims are not likely to have a material impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Actual costs incurred will depend on the solvency of our insurance carriers, the degree of coverage with respect to any particular claim, our success in litigating these claims and the solvency of third parties who may be jointly and severally liable. See “Note 10 to our Consolidated Financial Statements – Commitments and Contingencies.”
 
On February 3, 2014, we acquired Life Technologies. Life Technologies and its subsidiaries are party to several lawsuits in which plaintiffs claim infringement of their intellectual property. For example:
 
On June 6, 2004, Enzo Biochem, Enzo Life Sciences and Yale University filed a complaint against Life Technologies in United States District Court for the District of Connecticut (Enzo Biochem, Enzo Life Sciences, & Yale Univ. v. Applera Corp. & Tropix, Inc., D-Conn Case No. 3:04-cv-00929). The plaintiffs allege patent infringement by Applera’s labeled DNA terminator products used in DNA sequencing and fragment analysis. The plaintiff sought damages for alleged willful infringement, attorneys’ fees, costs, prejudgment interest, and injunctive relief. In November 2012, the jury awarded damages of $48.5 million. Prejudgment interest of $12.4 million was also granted. The $60.9 million judgment and interest has been accrued by Life Technologies. The case is currently on appeal to the United States Court of Appeal for the Federal Circuit.
 
On January 30, 2012, Enzo Life Sciences filed a complaint against Life Technologies in United States District Court for the District of Delaware (Enzo Life Sciences, v. Life Technologies, D-Del. Case No. 12-cv-00105). The plaintiff alleges patent infringement by Life Technologies’ Taqman probes and assays, Dynabead oligo-dT beads, and NCode oligonucleotide array products. The plaintiff seeks damages for alleged willful infringement, attorneys’ fees, costs, prejudgment interest and injunctive relief.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
On May 26, 2010, Promega Corp. & Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Wissenschaften EV filed a complaint against Life Technologies in the United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin (Promega Corp. & Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Wissenschaften EV v. Life Technologies Corp., Invitrogen IP Holdings, Inc. and Applied Biosystems, LLC, WD-WI Case No. 10-cv-00281). The plaintiffs allege patent infringement by sales and uses of Applied Biosystems’ short tandem repeat DNA identification products outside the scope of a 2006 license agreement. The plaintiff sought damages for alleged willful infringement, attorneys’ fees, costs, prejudgment interest, and injunctive relief. Although a jury initially found willful infringement and assessed damages at $52 million, the District Court subsequently overturned the verdict on the grounds that the plaintiff had failed to prove infringement. The District Court entered judgment in favor of Life Technologies, and the case is currently on appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. The $52 million award has been accrued by Life Technologies.
 
On September 29, 2009, Life Technologies filed a complaint against Illumina, Inc. and Solexa, Inc. in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware (Life Technologies Corp., Applied Biosystems, LLC et al. v. Illumina, Inc. and Solexa, Inc., D-Del. Case No. 09-cv-00706) alleging infringement of patents relating to clonal amplification of nucleic acids by Illumina’s next generation Genome Analyzer, HiSeq, and MiSeq DNA sequencing systems. Illumina asserted counterclaims in that case alleging infringement of patents relating to optical tracking, generating linked pairs of nucleic acid segments, and genome-wide variation analysis by Life Technologies’ next generation SOLiD sequencing system and Ion Torrent’s semiconductor sequencing system. On April 6, 2011, the case was transferred to the United States District Court for the Southern District of California (SD-Cal. Case No. 3:11-cv-00703). Life Technologies seeks damages for alleged willful infringement, attorneys’ fees, costs, pre- and post-judgment interest, and injunctive relief. On its counterclaims, Illumina seeks damages for alleged infringement, attorneys’ fees, costs, pre- and post-judgment interest, and injunctive relief.
 
On December 27, 2011, Illumina Inc. filed a complaint against Life Technologies in the United States District Court for the Southern District of California (Illumina, Inc. v. Life Technologies Corp., Applied Biosystems, LLC & Ion Torrent Systems, Inc., SD-Cal. Case No. 11-cv-3022) alleging infringement of a patent relating to methods for making bead arrays by Ion Torrent’s semiconductor sequencing systems. Plaintiff seeks damages for alleged willful infringement, attorneys’ fees, costs, pre- and post-judgment interest, and injunctive relief.
 
On April 26, 2012, Esoterix Genetic Laboratories filed a complaint against Life Technologies in the United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina (Esoterix Genetic Laboratories, LLC v. Life Technologies Corp., Applied Biosystems, LLC & Ion Torrent Systems, Inc., MD-NC Case No. 12-cv-00411) alleging infringement of patents relating to detection of subpopulations of cells with mutated sequences and multiplexed DNA amplification by Life Technologies’ OpenArray systems, next generation SOLiD sequencing system, and Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing systems. Plaintiff seeks damages for alleged willful infringement, attorneys’ fees, costs, prejudgment interest, and injunctive relief.
 
On October 31, 2012, Esoterix Genetic Laboratories and The Johns Hopkins University filed a complaint against Life Technologies in the United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina (Esoterix Genetic Laboratories, LLC & The Johns Hopkins University v. Life Technologies Corp., Applied Biosystems, LLC & Ion Torrent Systems, Inc., MD-NC Case No. 12-cv-01173) alleging infringement of patents relating to methods of determining a ratio of genetic sequences in a population of genetic sequences and methods of determining allelic imbalances in a biological sample by Life Technologies’ OpenArray systems, next generation SOLiD sequencing system, and Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing systems. Plaintiffs seek damages for alleged willful infringement, attorneys’ fees, costs, prejudgment interest, and injunctive relief.
 
On June 3, 2013, Unisone Strategic IP filed a complaint against Life Technologies in the United States District Court for the Southern District of California (Unisone Strategic IP v. Life Tech et al., SD-Cal. Case No. 13-cv-01278) alleging patent infringement by Life Technologies’ supply chain management system software, which operates with product “supply centers” installed at customer sites. Plaintiff seeks damages for alleged willful infringement, attorneys’ fees, costs, and injunctive relief.
 
An unfavorable outcome in one or more of these matters could have a material adverse effect on the company’s results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
 
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Item 4.          Mine Safety Disclosures
 
Not applicable.
 
PART II
 
Item 5.          Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Price of Common Stock
 
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol TMO. The following table sets forth the high and low sale prices of the company’s common stock for 2013 and 2012, as reported in the consolidated transaction reporting system.
 
   
2013
   
2012
 
   
High
   
Low
   
High
   
Low
 
                         
First Quarter
  $ 78.04     $ 64.54     $ 58.37     $ 45.67  
Second Quarter
    89.50       75.27       56.91       48.14  
Third Quarter
    94.74       84.41       61.00       49.63  
Fourth Quarter
    111.44       89.71       65.54       57.21  

The closing price of the company’s common stock on December 31, 2013 and 2012, was $111.35 and $63.78, respectively.
 
The following table sets forth the per share dividends declared on the company’s common stock for 2013 and 2012.
 
   
2013
   
2012
 
           
First Quarter
  $ 0.15     $ 0.13  
Second Quarter
    0.15       0.13  
Third Quarter
    0.15       0.13  
Fourth Quarter
    0.15       0.15  

Our payment of dividends in the future will be determined by our Board of Directors and will depend upon our earnings, financial condition and other factors.
 
Holders of Common Stock
 
As of February 1, 2014, the company had 5,266 holders of record of its common stock. This does not include holdings in street or nominee names.
 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
There was no share repurchase activity for the company’s fourth quarter of 2013. On November 8, 2012, the Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $1.00 billion of the company’s common stock beginning January 1, 2013. At December 31, 2013, $910 million was available for future repurchases of the company’s common stock under this authorization. In connection with the acquisition of Life Technologies, the company suspended repurchases of its common stock at the end of the first quarter of 2013.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Item 6.          Selected Financial Data

(In millions except per share amounts)
 
2013 (a)
   
2012 (b)
   
2011 (c)
   
2010 (d)
   
2009 (e)
 
                               
Statement of Income Data
                             
Revenues
  $ 13,090.3     $ 12,509.9     $ 11,558.8     $ 10,393.1     $ 9,741.0  
Operating Income
    1,609.6       1,482.1       1,250.8       1,188.1       976.3  
Income from Continuing Operations
    1,279.1       1,258.4       1,023.4       986.1       807.1  
Net Income
    1,273.3       1,177.9       1,329.9       1,035.6       850.3  
Earnings per Share from Continuing
     Operations:
                                       
Basic
    3.55       3.46       2.69       2.45       1.96  
Diluted
    3.50       3.43       2.66       2.41       1.91  
Earnings per Share:
                                       
Basic
    3.53       3.24       3.49       2.57       2.06  
Diluted
    3.48       3.21       3.46       2.53       2.01  
                                         
Cash Dividends Declared per Share
    .60       .54                    
                                         
Balance Sheet Data
                                       
Working Capital
  $ 6,754.7     $ 2,741.5     $ 1,708.8     $ 2,425.2     $ 2,891.6  
Total Assets
    31,863.4       27,444.6       26,833.7       21,349.4       21,625.0  
Long-term Obligations
    9,499.6       7,031.2       5,755.2       2,031.3       2,064.0  
Shareholders' Equity
    16,856.1       15,464.7       15,038.1       15,361.0       15,430.9  
 
The caption “restructuring and other costs” in the notes below includes amounts charged to cost of revenues, primarily for the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition, and charges/credits to selling, general and administrative expense primarily for significant acquisition transaction costs.
 
(a)
Reflects $179.8 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs; after-tax loss of $5.8 million related to the company’s discontinued operations; and the repurchase of $89.8 million of the company’s common stock. Also reflects the issuance of $3.20 billion of long-term debt in December 2013 to fund the acquisition of Life Technologies in January 2014.
(b)
Reflects $150.2 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs; after-tax loss of $80.5 million related to the company’s discontinued operations; and the repurchase of $1.15 billion of the company’s common stock.
(c)
Reflects $230.6 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs; after-tax income of $306.5 million related to the company’s discontinued operations; and the repurchase of $1.34 billion of the company’s common stock. Also reflects the acquisitions of Dionex Corporation, in May 2011, and the Phadia group, in August 2011.
(d)
Reflects $76.4 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs; after-tax income of $49.5 million related to the company’s discontinued operations; and the repurchase of $1.01 billion of the company’s common stock.
(e)
Reflects $67.1 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs; after-tax income of $43.2 million related to the company’s discontinued operations; and the repurchase of $414.6 million of the company’s common stock.
   

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
 
Reference is made throughout this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations to Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which begin on page F-1 of this report.
 
Overview
 
The company develops, manufactures and sells a broad range of products that are sold worldwide. The company expands the product lines and services it offers by developing and commercializing its own technologies and by making strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses. The company’s continuing operations fall into three business segments (see Note 3): Analytical Technologies, Specialty Diagnostics and Laboratory Products and Services.
 
Recent and Pending Acquisitions and Divestitures
 
The company’s strategy is to augment internal growth at existing businesses with complementary acquisitions such as those completed in 2012 and its 2014 acquisition of Life Technologies. The company’s principal 2012 acquisitions are described below.
 
·  
One Lambda, a provider of transplant diagnostics, was acquired in September 2012 to enhance the company’s presence in specialty in vitro diagnostics and to increase access to the transplant diagnostics market.
 
·  
Doe & Ingalls, a channel for specialty production chemicals and provider of customized supply-chain services to the life sciences and microelectronics industries, was acquired in May 2012 to expand the company’s products and services that address the production market.
 
In addition, on April 14, 2013, the company entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger with Life Technologies providing for the acquisition of Life Technologies by the company (the “Life Technologies Acquisition”) at a price of approximately $13.6 billion in cash ($76.1311786 per share), plus the assumption of certain Life Technologies indebtedness (Note 2). Life Technologies provides innovative products and services to customers conducting scientific research and genetic analysis, as well as those in applied markets, such as forensics and food safety testing. Life Technologies’ revenues totaled $3.9 billion in 2013. The acquisition was completed on February 3, 2014. Life Technologies will be reported in a new segment, Life Sciences Solutions, together with most of the company’s existing biosciences businesses.
 
The company completed its permanent financing arrangements for the Life Technologies Acquisition in December 2013. The financing consists of a term loan agreement (the “Term Credit Facility”), proceeds from issuance of senior debt and commercial paper, proceeds from equity forward agreements and cash on hand. These arrangements are discussed below under the caption “Liquidity and Capital Resources”.
 
In December 2013, the company entered an agreement to sell its sera and media, gene modulation and magnetic beads businesses to GE Healthcare for approximately $1.06 billion. The businesses fall principally in the Analytical Technologies segment. Divestiture of these businesses was a condition to obtaining antitrust approval for the Life Technologies Acquisition. As of December 31, 2013, the agreement to sell the businesses was contingent on, among other things, obtaining antitrust approval for the acquisition of Life Technologies. That approval was obtained in January 2014 at which time these businesses were designated as held for sale. Revenues and operating income in 2013 of the businesses to be sold were approximately $250 million and $80 million, respectively. The sale is subject to additional regulatory approvals and other customary closing conditions.
 
Overview of Results of Operations and Liquidity
 
In February 2013, in connection with a change in management responsibility for two product lines with aggregate annual revenues of approximately $100 million, the company transferred its water analysis and research serum and media product lines to the Laboratory Products and Services segment from the Analytical Technologies segment. The company has historically moved a product line between segments when a shift in strategic focus of either the product line or a segment more closely aligns the product line with a segment different than that in which it had previously been reported. Prior period segment information has been reclassified to reflect these transfers.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Overview of Results of Operations and Liquidity (continued)
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2013
   
2012
 
                         
Revenues
                       
Analytical Technologies
  $ 4,125.1     31.5 %   $ 4,017.9     32.1 %
Specialty Diagnostics
    3,191.7     24.4 %     2,962.3     23.7 %
Laboratory Products and Services
    6,350.5     48.5 %     6,053.7     48.4 %
Eliminations
    (577.0 )   (4.4 )%     (524.0 )   (4.2 )%
                             
    $ 13,090.3     100 %   $ 12,509.9     100 %
                             
Sales in 2013 were $13.09 billion, an increase of $580 million from 2012. Sales increased $188 million due to acquisitions. The unfavorable effects of currency translation resulted in a decrease in revenues of $36 million in 2013. Aside from the effects of currency translation and acquisitions, revenues increased $429 million (3%) primarily due to increased demand offset in part by modestly lower sales to customers in academic and government markets which the company believes was due in part to uncertainty in government funding expectations in the U.S. Sales remained strong to customers in pharmaceutical and biotech industries while sales to customers in industrial markets grew modestly. Sales growth was strong in Asia and modest in Europe and North America.
 
In 2013, total company operating income and operating income margin were $1.61 billion and 12.3%, respectively, compared with $1.48 billion and 11.8%, respectively, in 2012. The increase in operating income and operating income margin was primarily due to productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, and, to a lesser extent, profit on incremental sales from acquisitions. The increase was offset in part by strategic growth investments, unfavorable foreign currency exchange and, to a lesser extent, $24 million of higher acquisition-related charges in 2013, an increase in amortization expense of $16 million in 2013 primarily related to the acquisitions of One Lambda and Doe & Ingalls and imposition of a medical device excise tax in 2013. The company’s references throughout this discussion to productivity improvements generally refer to improved cost efficiencies from its Practical Process Improvement (PPI) business system, reduced costs resulting from global sourcing initiatives, a lower cost structure following restructuring actions, including headcount reductions and consolidation of facilities, and low cost region manufacturing.
 
The company’s effective tax rates were 3.1% and 0.9% in 2013 and 2012, respectively. Due primarily to the non-deductibility of intangible asset amortization, the company’s cash payments (net of refunds) for income taxes for its continuing operations were higher than its income tax expense for financial reporting purposes and totaled $230 million and $331 million in 2013 and 2012, respectively. Tax payments decreased in 2013 due primarily to refunds of taxes paid in 2012. In 2013, non-U.S. subsidiaries of the company made cash and deemed distributions to the U.S. which resulted in no net tax cost. As a result of these distributions, the company generated U.S. foreign tax credits of $160 million offset by additional U.S. income taxes of $56 million on the related foreign income. The net result of these transactions favorably affected the income tax provision by $104 million and reduced the company’s effective tax rate by 7.9 percentage points in 2013. In addition, the effective tax rate in 2013 was also reduced by the U.S. Congress’ renewal in January 2013 of a tax credit for research and development activities for 2012 and 2013 and, to a lesser extent, increased earnings in lower tax jurisdictions and financing costs associated with the acquisition of Life Technologies that are deductible in the U.S. The tax credit for 2012 and 2013 research and development activities favorably affected the tax provision in 2013 by $15.4 million, or 1.2 percentage points. The tax provision in the 2013 period was unfavorably affected by $5.4 million, or 0.4 percentage points, as a result of adjustments to deferred tax balances due to changes in tax rates and audit settlements. The tax provision in 2012 was favorably affected by $53 million, or 4.1 percentage points, as a result of adjustments to deferred tax balances due to changes in tax rates, particularly a lower tax rate in Sweden. The company expects its effective tax rate in 2014 will be between 2% and 5% based on currently forecasted rates of profitability in the countries in which the company conducts business. The tax credit for research and development activities has not been extended by the U.S. Congress as of February 26, 2014.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Overview of Results of Operations and Liquidity (continued)
 
Income from continuing operations increased to $1.28 billion in 2013, from $1.26 billion in 2012, primarily due to improved operating performance, offset in part by $126 million of costs related to the acquisition and financing of Life Technologies.
 
During 2013, the company’s cash flow from operations totaled $2.01 billion (after deducting $5 million used by discontinued operations), compared with $2.04 billion (after deducting $28 million from discontinued operations) for 2012. The decrease resulted in part from cash disbursements for fees paid to obtain bridge financing commitments and other transaction costs, totaling $108 million, related to the acquisition of Life Technologies. In addition, higher increases in working capital items than in 2012 were partially offset in part by higher income before amortization and depreciation in 2013 compared to 2012.
 
As of December 31, 2013, the company’s short-term debt totaled $988 million, including $250 million of commercial paper obligations and $706 million of senior notes, due in 2014. The company has a revolving credit facility with a bank group that provides up to $1.50 billion of unsecured multi-currency revolving credit. If the company borrows under this facility, it intends to leave undrawn an amount equivalent to outstanding commercial paper to provide a source of funds in the event that commercial paper markets are not available. As of December 31, 2013, no borrowings were outstanding under the company’s revolving credit facility, although available capacity was reduced by approximately $43 million as a result of outstanding letters of credit.
 
Of the company’s existing cash and short-term investments of $5.83 billion as of December 31, 2013, $5.18 billion was available to partially fund the acquisition of Life Technologies in February 2014. The company believes that the remaining balance of approximately $650 million and the company’s future cash flow from operations together with available borrowing capacity under its revolving credit agreement are sufficient to meet the cash requirements of its existing and Life Technologies businesses for the foreseeable future, including at least the next 24 months.
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
The company’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and results of operations is based upon its financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and related disclosure of contingent liabilities. On an on-going basis, management evaluates its estimates, including those related to bad debts, inventories, business combinations, intangible assets and goodwill, equity investments, sales returns, warranty obligations, income taxes, contingencies and litigation, pension costs and stock-based compensation. Management believes the most complex and sensitive judgments, because of their significance to the consolidated financial statements, result primarily from the need to make estimates about the effects of matters that are inherently uncertain. Management bases its estimates on historical experience, current market and economic conditions and other assumptions that management believes are reasonable. The results of these estimates form the basis for judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities where the values are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
 
The company believes the following represent its critical accounting policies and estimates used in the preparation of its financial statements:
 
  (a)  Accounts Receivable
     
   
The company maintains allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of its customers to pay amounts due. Such allowances totaled $54 million at December 31, 2013. The company estimates the amount of customer receivables that are uncollectible based on the age of the receivable, the creditworthiness of the customer and any other information that is relevant to the judgment. If the financial condition of the company’s customers were to deteriorate, reducing their ability to make payments, additional allowances would be required.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates (continued)
 
  (b) Inventories
     
    The company writes down its inventories for estimated excess quantities and obsolescence based on differences between the cost and estimated net realizable value taking into consideration usage in the preceding 12 months, expected demand and any other information that is relevant to the judgment. If ultimate usage or demand varies significantly from expected usage or demand, additional writedowns may be required.
     
 
(c)
Intangible Assets and Goodwill
 
The company uses assumptions and estimates in determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. The determination of the fair value of intangible assets, which represent a significant portion of the purchase price in many of the company’s acquisitions, requires the use of significant judgment with regard to (i) the fair value; and (ii) whether such intangibles are amortizable or non-amortizable and, if the former, the period and the method by which the intangible asset will be amortized. The company estimates the fair value of acquisition-related intangible assets principally based on projections of cash flows that will arise from identifiable intangible assets of acquired businesses. The projected cash flows are discounted to determine the present value of the assets at the dates of acquisition. Definite-lived intangible assets totaled $5.73 billion at December 31, 2013. The company reviews definite-lived intangible assets for impairment when indication of potential impairment exists, such as a significant reduction in cash flows associated with the assets. Actual cash flows arising from a particular intangible asset could vary from projected cash flows which could imply different carrying values from those established at the dates of acquisition and which could result in impairment of such asset.
 
The company evaluates goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually and when events occur or circumstances change that may reduce the fair value of the asset below its carrying amount. Events or circumstances that might require an interim evaluation include unexpected adverse business conditions, economic factors, unanticipated technological changes or competitive activities, loss of key personnel and acts by governments and courts. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets totaled $12.50 billion and $1.34 billion, respectively, at December 31, 2013. Estimates of future cash flows require assumptions related to revenue and operating income growth, asset-related expenditures, working capital levels and other factors. Different assumptions from those made in the company’s analysis could materially affect projected cash flows and the company’s evaluation of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment.
 
Growth at some of the company’s businesses slowed in 2011 – 2013 which the company believes was in part due to uncertainty in funding expectations of customers in academic and government markets and economic uncertainty including a slow-down in Southern Europe. Projections of profitability for 2014 and thereafter and indicated fair values based on peer revenues and earnings trading multiples were sufficient to conclude that no impairment of goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets existed at the end of the tenth fiscal month of 2013, the date of the company’s impairment testing. There can be no assurance, however, that the slowing of growth experienced in 2011 - 2013 at some businesses will not continue or worsen in 2014 and that a downturn will not materially adversely affect peer trading multiples and the company’s businesses such that they do not achieve their forecasted profitability and these assets become impaired. Should the fair value of the company’s goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets decline because of reduced operating performance, market declines, or other indicators of impairment, or as a result of changes in the discount rate, charges for impairment may be necessary.
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates (continued)
 
     
The company’s ImmunoDiagnostics reporting unit was created with the acquisition of the Phadia Group in August 2011. Because this reporting unit consists solely of the acquired business, its book value equaled its fair value as of the acquisition date and thus, no cushion of fair value over book value existed at that date. During its 2013 goodwill impairment testing, the company determined that the ImmunoDiagnostics reporting unit’s cushion of fair value over book value had increased from 0% at the acquisition date to 11% as of November 1, 2013. Despite this favorable increase, given that the fair value is not substantially in excess of the book value, relatively small decreases in future cash flows from forecasted results or changes in discount rates or other assumptions could result in impairment of goodwill. The key variables that drive the cash flows of the reporting unit are levels of profitability and terminal value growth rate assumptions, as well as the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) rate applied. The estimates used for these assumptions represent management's best estimates, which the company believes are reasonable. These assumptions, however, are subject to uncertainty, including the degree to which the acquired business will grow revenue and profitability levels. The ImmunoDiagnostics reporting unit had $1.80 billion of goodwill, and had an overall carrying value of $3.31 billion as of December 31, 2013.
   
      
  (d)
Other Long-lived Assets
 
The company reviews other long-lived assets for impairment when indication of potential impairment exists, such as a significant reduction in cash flows associated with the assets. Other long-lived assets totaled $2.41 billion at December 31, 2013, including $1.77 billion of fixed assets. In testing a long-lived asset for impairment, assumptions are made concerning projected cash flows associated with the asset. Estimates of future cash flows require assumptions related to revenue and operating income growth and asset-related expenditures associated with the asset being reviewed for impairment. Should future cash flows decline significantly from estimated amounts, charges for impairment of other long-lived assets may be necessary.
     
    (e) Revenues
     
   
In instances where the company sells equipment with a related installation obligation, the company generally recognizes revenue related to the equipment when title passes. The company recognizes revenue related to the installation when it performs the installation. The allocation of revenue between the equipment and the installation is based on relative fair value at the time of sale. Should the fair value of either the equipment or the installation change, the company’s revenue recognition would be affected.
     
   
In instances where the company sells equipment with customer-specified acceptance criteria, the company must assess whether it can demonstrate adherence to the acceptance criteria prior to the customer’s acceptance testing to determine the timing of revenue recognition. If the nature of customer-specified acceptance criteria were to change or grow in complexity such that the company could not demonstrate adherence, the company would be required to defer additional revenues upon shipment of its products until completion of customer acceptance testing.
     
    The company’s software license agreements generally include multiple products and services, or “elements.” The company recognizes software license revenue based on the residual method after all elements have either been delivered or vendor specific objective evidence (VSOE) of fair value exists for any undelivered elements. In the event VSOE is not available for any undelivered element, revenue for all elements is deferred until delivery of all elements other than post-contract support is completed. Revenues from software maintenance and support contracts are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract. VSOE of fair value of software maintenance and support is determined based on the price charged for the maintenance and support when sold separately. Revenues from training and consulting services are recognized as services are performed, based on VSOE, which is determined by reference to the price customers pay when the services are sold separately.
     
    The company records reductions to revenue for estimated product returns by customers. Should a greater or lesser number of products be returned, additional adjustments to revenue may be required.
     
     
 
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates (continued)
 
  (f) Warranty Obligations
     
   
At the time the company recognizes revenue, it provides for the estimated cost of standard product warranties in cost of product revenues based primarily on historical experience and knowledge of any specific warranty problems that indicate projected warranty costs may vary from historical patterns. The liability for warranty obligations of the company’s continuing operations totaled $50 million at December 31, 2013. Should product failure rates or the actual cost of correcting product failures vary from estimates, revisions to the estimated warranty liability would be necessary.
     
  (g) Income Taxes
     
    In the ordinary course of business there is inherent uncertainty in quantifying the company’s income tax positions. The company assesses income tax positions and records tax benefits for all years subject to examination based upon management’s evaluation of the facts, circumstances and information available at the reporting date. For those tax positions where it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, the company has recorded the largest amount of tax benefit with a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. For those income tax positions where it is not more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, no tax benefit has been recognized in the financial statements. The company’s reserve for these matters totaled $134 million at December 31, 2013. Where applicable, associated interest expense has also been recognized as a component of the provision for income taxes.
     
    The company operates in numerous countries under many legal forms and, as a result, is subject to the jurisdiction of numerous domestic and non-U.S. tax authorities, as well as to tax agreements and treaties among these governments. Determination of taxable income in any jurisdiction requires the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and the use of estimates and assumptions regarding significant future events, such as the amount, timing and character of deductions, permissible revenue recognition methods under the tax law and the sources and character of income and tax credits. Changes in tax laws, regulations, agreements and treaties, currency exchange restrictions or the company’s level of operations or profitability in each taxing jurisdiction could have an impact upon the amount of current and deferred tax balances and hence the company’s net income.
     
    The company estimates the degree to which tax assets and loss carryforwards will result in a benefit based on expected profitability by tax jurisdiction, and provides a valuation allowance for tax assets and loss carryforwards that it believes will more likely than not go unused. If it becomes more likely than not that a tax asset or loss carryforward will be used, the company reverses the related valuation allowance. Any such reversals are recorded as a reduction of the company’s tax provision. The company’s tax valuation allowance totaled $77 million at December 31, 2013. Should the company’s actual future taxable income by tax jurisdiction vary from estimates, additional allowances or reversals thereof may be necessary.
     
    The company provides a liability for future income tax payments in the worldwide tax jurisdictions in which it operates. Should tax return positions that the company expects are sustainable not be sustained upon audit, the company could be required to record an incremental tax provision for such taxes. Should previously unrecognized tax benefits ultimately be sustained, a reduction in the company’s tax provision would result.
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates (continued)
 
  (h) Contingencies and Litigation
     
   
The company records accruals for various contingencies, including legal proceedings, environmental, workers’ compensation, product, general and auto liabilities, and other claims that arise in the normal course of business. The accruals are based on management’s judgment, historical claims experience, the probability of losses and, where applicable, the consideration of opinions of internal and or external legal counsel and actuarial estimates. Reserves of acquired businesses, including product liability and environmental reserves, were initially recorded at fair value and discounted to their net present value. Additionally, the company records receivables from third-party insurers when recovery has been determined to be probable.
     
  (i) Pension and Other Retiree Benefits
     
   
Several of the company’s U.S. and non-U.S. subsidiaries sponsor defined benefit pension and other retiree benefit plans. The cost and obligations of these arrangements are calculated using many assumptions to estimate the benefits that the employee earns while working, the amount of which cannot be completely determined until the benefit payments cease. Major assumptions used in the accounting for these employee benefit plans include the discount rate, expected return on plan assets and rate of increase in employee compensation levels. Assumptions are determined based on company data and appropriate market indicators in consultation with third-party actuaries, and are evaluated each year as of the plans’ measurement date. Net periodic pension costs for the company’s pension and other postretirement benefit plans totaled $29 million in 2013. The company’s unfunded benefit obligation totaled $301 million at year-end 2013 compared with $408 million at year-end 2012. Should any of these assumptions change, they would have an effect on net periodic pension costs and the unfunded benefit obligation. For example, a 10% decrease in the discount rate would result in an annual increase in pension and other postretirement benefit expense of approximately $3 million and an increase in the benefit obligation of approximately $85 million.
     
    As of December 31, 2013, the company expects to contribute between $30 and $40 million to its existing defined benefit pension plans in 2014.
     
  (j) Stock-based Compensation
     
   
The fair value of most stock options granted by the company is estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. For option grants and restricted stock units that require achievement of both service and market conditions, a lattice model is used to estimate fair value. Use of a valuation model requires management to make certain assumptions with respect to selected model inputs. Management estimates expected volatility based on the historical volatility of the company’s stock. Historical data on exercise patterns is the basis for determining the expected life of an option. The risk-free interest rate is based on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with a remaining term which approximates the expected life assumed at the date of grant. The dividend yield is based on the company’s most recent quarterly dividend rate. Changes in these input variables would affect the amount of expense associated with stock-based compensation. The compensation expense recognized for all stock-based awards is net of estimated forfeitures. The company estimates forfeiture rates based on historical analysis of option forfeitures. If actual forfeitures should vary from estimated forfeitures, adjustments to compensation expense may be required.
     
 
 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations
 
2013 Compared With 2012
 
Continuing Operations
               
Total
   
Currency
   
Acquisitions/
       
(In millions)
 
2013
   
2012
   
Change
   
Translation
   
Divestitures
   
Operations
 
                                     
Revenues
                                   
Analytical Technologies
  $ 4,125.1     $ 4,017.9     $ 107.2     $ (24.9 )   $ 9.4     $ 122.7  
Specialty Diagnostics
    3,191.7       2,962.3       229.4       (5.4 )     143.0       91.8  
Laboratory Products
    and Services
    6,350.5       6,053.7       296.8       (6.1 )     35.7       267.2  
Eliminations
    (577.0 )     (524.0 )     (53.0 )                 (53.0 )
                                                 
Consolidated Revenues
  $ 13,090.3     $ 12,509.9     $ 580.4     $ (36.4 )   $ 188.1     $ 428.7  
                                                 
Sales in 2013 were $13.09 billion, an increase of $580 million from 2012. Sales increased $188 million due to acquisitions. The unfavorable effects of currency translation resulted in a decrease in revenues of $36 million in 2013. Aside from the effects of currency translation and acquisitions, revenues increased $429 million (3%) primarily due to increased demand offset in part by modestly lower sales to customers in academic and government markets which the company believes was due in part to uncertainty in government funding expectations in the U.S. Sales remained strong to customers in pharmaceutical and biotech industries while sales growth was modest to customers in industrial markets. Sales growth was strong in Asia and modest in Europe and North America.
 
In 2013, total company operating income and operating income margin were $1.61 billion and 12.3%, respectively, compared with $1.48 billion and 11.8%, respectively, in 2012. The increase in operating income and operating income margin was primarily due to productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, and, to a lesser extent, profit on incremental sales from acquisitions. The increase was offset in part by strategic growth investments, unfavorable foreign currency exchange and, to a lesser extent, $24 million of higher acquisition-related charges in 2013, an increase in amortization expense of $16 million in 2013 primarily related to the acquisitions of One Lambda and Doe & Ingalls and imposition of a medical device excise tax in 2013. The company’s references throughout this discussion to productivity improvements generally refer to improved cost efficiencies from its Practical Process Improvement (PPI) business system, reduced costs resulting from global sourcing initiatives, a lower cost structure following restructuring actions, including headcount reductions and consolidation of facilities, and low cost region manufacturing.
 
In 2013, the company recorded restructuring and other costs, net, of $180 million, including $29 million of charges to cost of revenues related primarily for the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition and, to a lesser extent, accelerated depreciation on manufacturing assets to be abandoned due to facility consolidations and $74 million of charges to selling, general and administrative expenses consisting primarily of transaction costs related to the acquisition of Life Technologies, revisions of estimated contingent consideration for a recent acquisition and a charge associated with product liability litigation. The company incurred $78 million of cash restructuring costs primarily for continued headcount reductions and facility consolidations in an effort to streamline operations, including severance at several businesses and abandoned facility expenses at businesses that have been or are being consolidated, such as the consolidation of several facilities in the U.S. and Europe (see Note 14). The cash costs also included $4 million of transaction expenses related to the agreement to sell its sera and media, gene modulation and magnetic beads businesses (see Note 2).
 
In 2012, the company recorded restructuring and other costs, net, of $150 million, including $56 million of charges to cost of revenues primarily related to the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition and $13 million of charges to selling, general and administrative expenses primarily consisting of transaction costs related to the acquisition of One Lambda. The company incurred $67 million of cash restructuring costs primarily for continued headcount reductions and facility consolidations in an effort to streamline operations, including severance at several businesses and abandoned facility expenses at businesses that have been or are being consolidated. The company also recorded $15 million of non-cash expense, net, primarily for the impairment of intangible asset at several small business units and, to a lesser extent, real estate writedowns related to facility consolidations partially offset by a $6 million gain from the settlement of pre-acquisition litigation.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
As of February 27, 2014, the company has identified restructuring actions that will result in additional charges of approximately $50 million in 2014 and expects to identify additional actions during 2014, including some related to the acquisition of Life Technologies. The restructuring projects for which charges were incurred in 2013 are expected to result in annual cost savings of approximately $80 million beginning in part in 2013 and, to a greater extent, in 2014, including $35 million in the Analytical Technologies segment, $20 million in the Specialty Diagnostics segment and $25 million in the Laboratory Products and Services segment. The restructuring actions for which charges were incurred in 2012 resulted in annual cost savings of approximately $85 million beginning in part in 2012 and to a greater extent in 2013, including $40 million in the Analytical Technologies segment, $20 million in the Specialty Diagnostics segment and $25 million in the Laboratory Products and Services segment.
 
The company expects significant restructuring charges in the first quarter of 2014 in connection with the acceleration of certain equity awards held by Life Technologies’ employees and severance obligations payable to former Life Technologies’ executives.
 
Segment Results
 
The company’s management evaluates segment operating performance using operating income before certain charges/credits to cost of revenues and selling, general and administrative expenses, principally associated with acquisition-related activities; restructuring and other costs/income including costs arising from facility consolidations such as severance and abandoned lease expense and gains and losses from the sale of real estate and product lines; and amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets. The company also refers to this measure as adjusted operating income. The company uses this measure because it helps management understand and evaluate the segments’ core operating results and facilitate comparison of performance for determining compensation (Note 3). Accordingly, the following segment data is reported on this basis.
 
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2013
   
2012
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
                 
Analytical Technologies
  $ 4,125.1     $ 4,017.9     3 %
Specialty Diagnostics
    3,191.7       2,962.3     8 %
Laboratory Products and Services
    6,350.5       6,053.7     5 %
Eliminations
    (577.0 )     (524.0 )   10 %
                       
Consolidated Revenues
  $ 13,090.3     $ 12,509.9     5 %
                       
Segment Income
                     
Analytical Technologies
  $ 767.8     $ 749.1     2 %
Specialty Diagnostics
    866.7       761.2     14 %
Laboratory Products and Services
    918.0       869.6     6 %
                       
Subtotal Reportable Segments
    2,552.5       2,379.9     7 %
                       
Cost of Revenues Charges
    (28.6 )     (55.6 )      
Selling, General and Administrative Charges, Net
    (73.5 )     (12.5 )      
Restructuring and Other Costs, Net
    (77.7 )     (82.1 )      
Amortization of Acquisition-related Intangible Assets
    (763.1 )     (747.6 )      
                       
Consolidated Operating Income
  $ 1,609.6     $ 1,482.1     9 %
                       
Reportable Segments Operating Income Margin
    19.5 %     19.0 %      
                       
Consolidated Operating Income Margin
    12.3 %     11.8 %      
                       
Income from the company’s reportable segments increased 7% to $2.55 billion in 2013 due primarily to productivity improvements, net of inflationary costs increases, and, to a lesser extent, profit on incremental sales from acquisitions, offset in part by strategic growth investments and unfavorable foreign currency exchange.
 
   Analytical Technologies
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2013
   
2012
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 4,125.1     $ 4,017.9     3 %
                       
Operating Income Margin
    18.6 %     18.6 %  
0.0pt
 
 
Sales in the Analytical Technologies segment increased $107 million to $4.13 billion in 2013. Sales increased $123 million (3%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses and $9 million due to acquisitions. These increases were offset in part by a decrease of $25 million due to the unfavorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand for chromatography and mass spectrometry instruments as well as bioscience products, offset in part by lower sales of chemical analysis products which the company believes were affected by macro economic conditions facing customers in industrial markets.
 
Operating income margin was 18.6% in 2013 compared to 18.6% in 2012. Operating margin was favorably affected by productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, offset by strategic growth investments and unfavorable foreign currency exchange.
 
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
   Specialty Diagnostics
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2013
   
2012
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 3,191.7     $ 2,962.3       8 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    27.2 %     25.7 %  
1.5pt
 
 
Sales in the Specialty Diagnostics segment increased $229 million to $3.19 billion in 2013. Sales increased $143 million due to an acquisition and $92 million (3%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses. These increases were offset in part by a decrease of $5 million due to the unfavorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand, particularly for clinical diagnostics products and, to a lesser extent, microbiology and allergy products in part as a result of strong flu and pollen seasons, partially offset by weakness from reduced healthcare utilization and lower sales of instruments to diagnostic laboratories due in part to lower healthcare reimbursement rates in the U.S. for anatomical pathology tests.
 
Operating income margin was 27.2% in 2013 and 25.7% in 2012. The increase resulted from profit on incremental sales from an acquisition and, to a lesser extent, at existing businesses as well as productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases. The increases were offset in part by strategic growth investments and imposition of the medical device excise tax in 2013.
 
   Laboratory Products and Services
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2013
   
2012
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 6,350.5     $ 6,053.7       5 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    14.5 %     14.4 %  
0.1pt
 
 
Sales in the Laboratory Products and Services segment increased $297 million to $6.35 billion in 2013. Sales increased $267 million (4%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses and $36 million due to an acquisition. The unfavorable effects of currency translation resulted in a decrease in revenues of $6 million in 2013. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand for laboratory products and clinical trial logistics services. Sales of laboratory equipment increased only modestly due to weakness in demand from customers in academic and government markets.
 
Operating income margin was 14.5% in 2013 and 14.4% in 2012. The increase was primarily due to productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases and, to a lesser extent, price increases, offset in part by strategic growth investments and unfavorable sales mix.
 
Other Expense, Net
 
The company reported other expense, net, of $290 million and $213 million in 2013 and 2012, respectively (Note 4). In the first quarter of 2013, the company irrevocably contributed appreciated available-for-sale investments that had a fair value of $27 million to two of its U.K. defined benefit plans, resulting in realization of a previously unrecognized gain of $11 million. In 2013, other items, net also includes $74 million of charges related to amortization of fees paid to obtain bridge financing commitments related to the Life Technologies Acquisition, offset in part by gains totaling $5 million from sales of equity investments. Interest expense increased $21 million primarily due to the debt issued to fund the One Lambda and Life Technologies acquisitions.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
Provision for Income Taxes
 
The company’s effective tax rates were 3.1% and 0.9% in 2013 and 2012, respectively. Due primarily to the non-deductibility of intangible asset amortization, the company’s cash payments (net of refunds) for income taxes for its continuing operations were higher than its income tax expense for financial reporting purposes and totaled $230 million and $331 million in 2013 and 2012, respectively. Tax payments decreased in 2013 due primarily to refunds of taxes paid in 2012. In 2013, non-U.S. subsidiaries of the company made cash and deemed distributions to the U.S. which resulted in no net tax cost. As a result of these distributions, the company generated U.S. foreign tax credits of $160 million offset by additional U.S. income taxes of $56 million on the related foreign income. The net result of these transactions favorably affected the income tax provision by $104 million and reduced the company’s effective tax rate by 7.9 percentage points in 2013. In addition, the effective tax rate in 2013 was also reduced by the U.S. Congress’ renewal in January 2013 of a tax credit for research and development activities for 2012 and 2013 and, to a lesser extent, increased earnings in lower tax jurisdictions and financing costs associated with the acquisition of Life Technologies that are deductible in the U.S. The tax credit for 2012 and 2013 research and development activities favorably affected the tax provision in 2013 by $15.4 million, or 1.2 percentage points. The tax provision in the 2013 period was unfavorably affected by $5.4 million, or 0.4 percentage points, as a result of adjustments to deferred tax balances due to changes in tax rates and audit settlements. The tax provision in 2012 was favorably affected by $53 million, or 4.1 percentage points, as a result of adjustments to deferred tax balances due to changes in tax rates, particularly a lower tax rate in Sweden. The company expects its effective tax rate in 2014 will be between 2% and 5% based on currently forecasted rates of profitability in the countries in which the company conducts business. The tax credit for research and development activities has not been extended by the U.S. Congress as of February 26, 2014.
 
The company has operations and a taxable presence in nearly 50 countries outside of the U.S. All of these countries except three have a lower tax rate than the U.S. The countries in which the company has a material presence that have significantly lower tax rates than the U.S. include Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The company’s ability to obtain a benefit from lower tax rates outside the U.S. is dependent on its relative levels of income in countries outside the U.S. and on the statutory tax rates in those countries. Based on the dispersion of the company’s non-U.S. income tax provision among many countries, the company believes that a change in the statutory tax rate in any individual country is not likely to materially affect the company’s income tax provision or net income, aside from any resulting one-time adjustment to the company’s deferred tax balances to reflect a new rate.
 
Discontinued Operations
 
On June 22, 2012, in an effort to exit a non-core business, the company’s senior management made a decision to pursue a sale of its laboratory workstations business, part of the Laboratory Products and Services segment. The company completed the sale in October 2012 for nominal proceeds. Revenues of the laboratory workstations business were $147 million in the 2012 period prior to the sale. The business incurred a pre-tax loss of $30 million in 2012 due to inventory write-offs, higher manufacturing costs and restructuring and other transition costs associated with relocation of the business. In 2012, the company recorded after-tax charges aggregating $63 million as the loss on the divestiture. The loss in 2013 for discontinued operations primarily represents a charge for the cost of razing abandoned facilities of the business prior to sale of the land. The results of the laboratory workstations business have been included in the accompanying financial statements as discontinued operations for all periods presented.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
 
         In February 2013, the FASB issued new guidance which requires disclosure of information about significant reclassification adjustments from accumulated other comprehensive income in a single note or on the face of the financial statements. This guidance became effective for the company in 2013. Adoption of this standard, which is related to disclosure only, did not have an impact on the company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
In July 2012, the FASB modified existing rules to allow entities to use a qualitative approach to test indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment. The revised standard allows an entity the option to first assess qualitatively whether it is more likely than not (that is, a likelihood of more than 50 percent) that an indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired. An entity is not required to calculate the fair value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset and perform the quantitative impairment test unless the entity determines that it is more likely than not that the asset is impaired. This guidance became effective for the company in 2013. Adoption of this standard did not have an impact on the company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
 
In December 2011, the FASB issued new guidance which requires enhanced disclosures on offsetting amounts within the balance sheet, including disclosing gross and net information about instruments and transactions eligible for offset or subject to a master netting or similar agreement. This guidance became effective for the company in 2013. Adoption of this standard, which is related to disclosure only, did not have an impact on the company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
 
Contingent Liabilities
 
The company is contingently liable with respect to certain legal proceedings and related matters. An outcome that differs materially from current reserve estimates for one or more of the matters described in Note 10 or Item 3 of this Form 10-K could have a material adverse effect on the company’s financial position as well as its results of operations and cash flows.
 
2012 Compared With 2011
 
Continuing Operations
 
Sales in 2012 were $12.51 billion, an increase of $951 million from 2011. The increase was due to acquisitions, including Phadia and Dionex, and, higher sales at existing businesses, offset in part by the unfavorable effects of currency translation. Had Phadia, Dionex and the company been combined from the beginning of 2011, revenues would have increased $403 million (3%) over pro forma 2011 revenues, including $474 million (4%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses and $156 million due to other acquisitions, net of divestitures, offset in part by $227 million due to the unfavorable effects of currency translation. The pro forma increase in revenues was primarily due to increased demand. Sales growth was strong in Asia and moderate in North America and Europe. Demand from customers in academic and government markets slowed such that growth was nominal in 2012 and demand from customers in industrial markets slowed such that growth was nominal in the second half of 2012.
 
In 2012, total company operating income and operating income margin were $1.48 billion and 11.8%, respectively, compared with $1.25 billion and 10.8%, respectively, in 2011. The increase in operating income was primarily due to profit on incremental sales from acquisitions and existing businesses and, to a lesser extent, productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases and $84 million of lower acquisition-related charges in 2012. The increase was offset in part by strategic growth investments and an increase in amortization expense of $100 million in 2012, primarily related to the acquisitions of Phadia and Dionex.
 
In 2012, the company recorded restructuring and other costs, net, of $150 million, including $56 million of charges to cost of revenues related primarily to the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition and $13 million of charges to selling, general and administrative expenses consisting primarily of transaction costs related to the acquisition of One Lambda. The company incurred $67 million of cash restructuring costs primarily for continued headcount reductions and facility consolidations in an effort to streamline operations, including severance to reduce headcount at several businesses and abandoned facility expenses at businesses that have been or are being consolidated, such as the consolidation of several facilities in the U.S. and Europe. The company also recorded $15 million of non-cash expense, net, primarily for the impairment of intangible assets at several small business units and, to a lesser extent, real estate writedowns related to facility consolidations partially offset by a $6 million gain from the settlement of pre-acquisition litigation.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
In 2011, the company recorded restructuring and other costs, net, of $231 million, including $73 million of charges to cost of revenues primarily related to the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition and $62 million of charges to selling, general and administrative expenses primarily for transaction costs related to the acquisitions of Dionex and Phadia. The company incurred $81 million of cash restructuring costs, including $21 million of cash compensation from monetizing equity awards held by Dionex employees at the date of acquisition. The cash costs also include continuing costs associated with headcount reductions and facility consolidations in an effort to streamline operations, including severance to reduce headcount at several businesses and abandoned facility expenses at businesses that have been or are being consolidated. The company also recorded $15 million of non-cash expense, net, primarily for the impairment of intangible assets at several small business units and, to a lesser extent, a loss on sale of a heating equipment business.
 
The restructuring actions for which charges were incurred in 2011 resulted in annual cost savings of approximately $80 million beginning in part in 2011 and to a greater extent in 2012, including $30 million in the Analytical Technologies segment, $15 million in the Specialty Diagnostics segment and $35 million in the Laboratory Products and Services segment.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
Segment Results
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2012
   
2011
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
                 
Analytical Technologies
  $ 4,017.9     $ 3,739.7       7 %
Specialty Diagnostics
    2,962.3       2,469.9       20 %
Laboratory Products and Services
    6,053.7       5,831.2       4 %
Eliminations
    (524.0 )     (482.0 )     9 %
                         
Consolidated Revenues
  $ 12,509.9     $ 11,558.8       8 %
                         
Segment Income
                       
Analytical Technologies
  $ 749.1     $ 694.8       8 %
Specialty Diagnostics
    761.2       598.4       27 %
Laboratory Products and Services
    869.6       836.1       4 %
                         
Subtotal Reportable Segments
    2,379.9       2,129.3       12 %
                         
Cost of Revenues Charges
    (55.6 )     (72.6 )        
Selling, General and Administrative Costs, Net
    (12.5 )     (61.5 )        
Restructuring and Other Costs, Net
    (82.1 )     (96.5 )        
Amortization of Acquisition-related Intangible Assets
    (747.6 )     (647.9 )        
                         
Consolidated Operating Income
  $ 1,482.1     $ 1,250.8       18 %
                         
Reportable Segments Operating Income Margin
    19.0 %     18.4 %        
                         
Consolidated Operating Income Margin
    11.8 %     10.8 %        
 
Income from the company’s reportable segments increased 12% to $2.38 billion in 2012 due primarily to profit on incremental sales from acquisitions and, to a lesser extent, existing businesses and productivity improvements offset in part by inflationary cost increases.
 
   Analytical Technologies
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2012
   
2011
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 4,017.9     $ 3,739.7       7 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    18.6 %     18.6 %     -  
 
Sales in the Analytical Technologies segment increased $278 million to $4.02 billion in 2012. The increase was due to acquisitions, including Dionex, and higher revenue at existing businesses, offset in part by the unfavorable effects of currency translation. Had Dionex and the company been combined from the beginning of 2011, revenues would have increased $104 million (3%) over pro forma 2011 revenues, including an increase of $183 million (5%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses and $2 million due to acquisitions, net of a disposition, offset in part by $81 million due to the unfavorable effects of currency translation. The pro forma increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand across the segment’s range of analytical instruments and for bioscience products, offset in part by lower sales to customers in academic and government markets.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
Operating income margin was 18.6% in both 2012 and 2011. Profit from productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases and, to a lesser extent, from incremental sales at existing businesses was substantially offset by higher spending on commercial initiatives and unfavorable currency translation.
 
   Specialty Diagnostics
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2012
   
2011
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 2,962.3     $ 2,469.9       20 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    25.7 %     24.2 %     1.5  
 
Sales in the Specialty Diagnostics segment increased $492 million to $2.96 billion in 2012. The increase was due to acquisitions, including Phadia, and higher revenue at existing businesses, offset in part by the unfavorable effects of currency translation. Had Phadia and the company been combined from the beginning of 2011, revenues would have increased $118 million (4%) over pro forma 2011 revenues, including increases of $103 million (4%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses and $80 million due to other acquisitions, offset in part by $65 million due to the unfavorable effects of currency translation. The pro forma increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand for clinical diagnostic products and, to a lesser extent, microbiology products.
 
Operating income margin was 25.7% in 2012 and 24.2% in 2011. The increase resulted primarily from the accretive Phadia acquisition and, to a lesser extent, productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases and profit on incremental sales at existing businesses. The increases were offset in part by higher spending on commercial initiatives.
 
   Laboratory Products and Services
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2012
   
2011
   
Change
 
                   
Revenues
  $ 6,053.7     $ 5,831.2       4 %
                         
Operating Income Margin
    14.4 %     14.3 %     0.1  
 
Sales in the Laboratory Products and Services segment increased $223 million to $6.05 billion in 2012. Sales increased $74 million due to acquisitions. The unfavorable effects of currency translation resulted in a decrease in revenues of $89 million in 2012. In addition to the changes in revenue resulting from acquisitions and currency translation, revenues increased $238 million (4%) primarily due to increased demand for laboratory consumables and, to a lesser extent, clinical trial logistics services. The increase in demand was offset in part by lower sales of laboratory equipment, particularly to customers in academic and government markets.
 
Operating income margin was 14.4% in 2012 and 14.3% in 2011. The increase resulted from productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, offset in part by lower sales of higher margin laboratory equipment and higher spending on commercial initiatives.
 
Other Expense, Net
 
The company reported other expense, net, of $213 million and $118 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $66 million in interest expense related to the debt issued to fund the Phadia and Dionex acquisitions. In 2011, other items, net included a $28 million gain on currency exchange contracts associated with the Phadia acquisition and repayment of its multi-currency debt and an $18 million gain on the sale of an investment accounted for under the cost method, offset in part by $10 million of fees associated with short-term financing commitments to fund the Phadia acquisition.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Results of Operations (continued)
 
Provision for Income Taxes
 
The company’s effective tax rates were 0.9% and 9.7% in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Due primarily to the non-deductibility of intangible asset amortization, the company’s cash payments for income taxes for its continuing operations were higher than its income tax expense for financial reporting purposes and totaled $331 million and $353 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The decrease in the effective tax rate was due in part to increased earnings in lower tax jurisdictions including the effect of the Phadia acquisition. The tax provision in 2012 was favorably affected by $53 million, or 4.1 percentage points, as a result of adjustments to deferred tax balances due to changes in tax rates, particularly a lower tax rate in Sweden. The tax provision in 2011 was unfavorably affected by $12 million, or 1.0 percentage points, as a result of adjustments to deferred tax balances due to changes in tax rates, offset in part by $8 million, or 0.7 percentage points, by the ability to use tax loss carryforwards as a result of the Phadia acquisition.
 
Discontinued Operations
 
The company placed its laboratory workstations business for sale in June 2012 and reclassified its accounts and results to discontinued operations for all periods presented. Revenues of the laboratory workstations business were $147 million in the 2012 period prior to the sale, compared to $180 million in 2011. The business incurred a pre-tax loss of $30 million in 2012 compared with a pre-tax loss of $6 million in 2011 due to inventory write-offs, higher manufacturing costs and restructuring and other transition costs associated with relocation of the business. In 2012, the company recorded after-tax charges aggregating $63 million as the loss on the divestiture. The business was sold in October 2012 for nominal proceeds.
 
On April 4, 2011, the company sold, in separate transactions, its Athena Diagnostics business (Athena) for $740 million in cash and its Lancaster Laboratories business (Lancaster) for $180 million in cash and escrowed proceeds of $20 million, substantially all of which was received in October 2012. The sale of these businesses resulted in an after-tax gain of $304 million or $0.79 per diluted share. Revenues and operating income of the two businesses aggregated approximately $225 million and $60 million, respectively, in 2010. The results of both businesses have been included in the accompanying financial statements as discontinued operations for all periods presented.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Consolidated working capital was $6.75 billion at December 31, 2013, compared with $2.74 billion at December 31, 2012. Included in working capital were cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments of $5.83 billion at December 31, 2013 and $810 million at December 31, 2012. The increase in working capital is primarily due to the issuance of $3.20 billion of long-term debt to fund the acquisition of Life Technologies and, to a lesser extent, earnings before amortization and depreciation and proceeds from the issuance of the company’s common stock under employees’ stock plans, offset in part by the payment of dividends and the repurchase of the company’s common stock.
 
2013
 
Cash provided by operating activities was $2.01 billion during 2013. Increases in accounts receivable and inventories used cash of $148 million and $72 million, respectively, primarily to support growth in sales. A decrease in other assets provided cash of $169 million primarily due to the timing of income tax refunds. An increase in accounts payable provided cash of $47 million, primarily due to higher inventory purchases. An increase in other liabilities provided cash of $163 million primarily due to the timing of payments for income taxes and incentive compensation. In 2013, the company paid fees to obtain bridge financing commitments and other transaction costs totaling $108 million related to the acquisition of Life Technologies. The company made cash contributions to its pension and postretirement benefit plans totaling $38 million during 2013. Cash payments for income taxes of continuing operations decreased to $230 million during 2013, compared with $331 million in the prior year, primarily related to refunds due from 2012. Payments for restructuring actions, principally severance costs and lease and other expenses of real estate consolidation, used cash of $69 million during 2013.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources (continued)
 
During 2013, the company’s primary investing activities were the purchase of $282 million of property, plant and equipment.
 
The company’s financing activities provided $3.31 billion of cash during 2013. To partially fund the acquisition of Life Technologies, the company issued $3.20 billion of senior notes. The company’s financing activities also included $230 million of proceeds from employee stock option exercises offset by the repurchase of $90 million of the company’s common stock and the payment of $216 million in cash dividends. On November 8, 2012, the Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $1.00 billion of the company’s common stock beginning January 1, 2013. At December 31, 2013, $910 million was available for future repurchases of the company’s common stock under this authorization. In connection with the acquisition of Life Technologies, the company suspended repurchases of its common stock at the end of the first quarter of 2013.
 
As of December 31, 2013, the company’s short-term debt totaled $988 million, including $250 million of commercial paper obligations and $706 million of senior notes, due in 2014. The company has a revolving credit facility with a bank group that provides up to $1.50 billion of unsecured multi-currency revolving credit. If the company borrows under this facility, it intends to leave undrawn an amount equivalent to outstanding commercial paper to provide a source of funds in the event that commercial paper markets are not available. As of December 31, 2013, no borrowings were outstanding under the company’s revolving credit facility, although available capacity was reduced by approximately $43 million as a result of outstanding letters of credit.
 
In January 2014, the company borrowed $5.00 billion under its Term Credit Facility and committed to make scheduled repayments through 2017. In addition, in January and February 2014, the company issued 34.9 million shares under equity forward and subscription agreements for aggregate proceeds of $2.94 billion. Proceeds from the Term Credit Facility and the equity forward agreements and cash on hand were used to fund the $13.6 billion cash purchase price of Life Technologies. The financial covenants of the Term Credit Facility and revolving credit facility require the company to maintain a Consolidated Leverage Ratio of debt to EBITDA (as defined in the agreements) below 5.5 to 1.0 during the first six months after the closing date of the Life Technologies Acquisition and decreasing, based on the passage of time, to 3.5 to 1.0, after 18 months. The company must also maintain a minimum interest coverage ratio of 3.0 to 1.0.
 
Approximately half of the company’s cash balances, aside from approximately $5.18 billion of cash held at year-end to fund the Life Technologies Acquisition, and cash flows from operations are from outside the U.S. The company uses its non-U.S. cash for needs outside of the U.S. including acquisitions and repayment of acquisition-related intercompany debt to the U.S. In addition, the company also transfers cash to the U.S. using non-taxable returns of capital as well as dividends where the related U.S. foreign tax credit equals or exceeds any tax cost arising from the dividends. As a result of using such means of transferring cash to the U.S., the company does not expect any adverse liquidity effects from its significant non-U.S. cash balances for the foreseeable future.
 
Of the company’s existing cash and short-term investments of $5.83 billion as of December 31, 2013, $5.18 billion was available to partially fund the acquisition of Life Technologies in February 2014. The company believes that the remaining balance of approximately $650 million and the company’s future cash flow from operations together with available borrowing capacity under its revolving credit agreement are sufficient to meet the cash requirements of its existing and Life Technologies businesses for the foreseeable future, including at least the next 24 months.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources (continued)
 
2012
 
Cash provided by operating activities was $2.04 billion during 2012. An increase in inventories used cash of $60 million, primarily to support growth in sales. An increase in other assets used cash of $100 million primarily related to the timing of tax refunds. An increase in other liabilities provided cash of $127 million, primarily due to the timing of payments for incentive compensation and income taxes. Cash payments for income taxes of continuing operations totaled $331 million during 2012. Payments for restructuring actions, principally severance costs and lease and other expenses of real estate consolidation, used cash of $64 million during 2012.
 
During 2012, the company’s primary investing activities included acquisitions and the purchase of property, plant and equipment. The company expended $1.08 billion for acquisitions and $315 million for purchases of property, plant and equipment. The company’s investing activities also included a $45 million increase in restricted cash to collateralize short-term borrowings in Asia. The company’s discontinued operations provided $59 million of cash, primarily tax benefits from the loss on sale of the laboratory workstations business and receipt of escrowed proceeds from the 2011 sale of Lancaster Laboratories.
 
The company’s financing activities used $918 million of cash during 2012, principally for the repurchase of $1.15 billion of the company’s common stock and to reduce commercial paper obligations by $849 million, offset in part by the issuance of $1.3 billion in senior notes. The company’s financing activities in 2012 also included the repayment of $355 million of long-term debt and the receipt of $254 million of proceeds from employee stock option exercises. Cash dividend payments totaled $142 million during 2012.
 
2011
 
Cash provided by operating activities was $1.69 billion during 2011. Increases in accounts receivable and inventories used cash of $101 million and $29 million, respectively, primarily to support growth in sales. An increase in other assets used cash of $137 million primarily due to the timing of tax refunds. An increase in accounts payable provided cash of $34 million, primarily due to higher inventory purchases. Payments for restructuring actions, principally severance costs and lease and other expenses of real estate consolidation, used cash of $69 million during 2011.
 
During 2011, the company’s primary investing activities included acquisitions and the purchase of property, plant and equipment. The company expended $5.69 billion for acquisitions and $261 million for purchases of property, plant and equipment. The company’s continuing operations had cash proceeds from a divestiture of $14 million and the company’s discontinued operations had net cash proceeds of $746 million, primarily from the sale of Athena and Lancaster.
 
The company’s financing activities provided $3.55 billion of cash during 2011, principally $5.15 billion from the issuance of debt to fund acquisitions, offset in part by the repurchase of $1.34 billion of the company’s common stock. Following issuance of a redemption notice for the remaining $329 million principal outstanding of the company’s 3.25% Senior Subordinated Convertible Notes due 2024, all of the balance was converted or redeemed for a total cash outlay of $452 million. The company’s financing activities in 2011 also included $158 million of proceeds from employee stock option exercises.
 
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
The company did not use special purpose entities or other off-balance-sheet financing arrangements in 2011 - 2013 except for letters of credit, bank guarantees, a build-to-suit lease arrangement entered in 2012, surety bonds and other guarantees disclosed in the table or discussed below. Of the amounts disclosed in the table below for letters of credit, bank guarantees, surety bonds and other guarantees, $4.8 million relates to guarantees of the performance of third parties, principally in connection with businesses that were sold. The balance relates to guarantees of the company’s own performance, primarily in the ordinary course of business.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources (continued)
 
Contractual Obligations and Other Commercial Commitments
 
The table below summarizes, by period due or expiration of commitment, the company’s contractual obligations and other commercial commitments as of December 31, 2013.
   
Payments due by Period or Expiration of Commitment
 
(In millions)
 
2014
   
2015 and
2016
   
2017 and
 2018
   
2019 and
Thereafter
   
Total
 
                               
Contractual Obligations and Other
                             
   Commercial Commitments
                             
      Debt principal, including short-
         term debt (a)
  $ 981.0     $ 2,609.3     $ 1,401.1     $ 5,500.0     $ 10,491.4  
      Interest
    324.1       560.4       436.1       1,145.5       2,466.1  
      Capital lease obligations
    0.3       0.2                   0.5  
      Operating lease obligations
    106.5       131.7       62.0       54.2       354.4  
      Unconditional purchase
         obligations (b)
    282.2       8.5                   290.7  
      Letters of credit and bank
         guarantees
    78.2       10.6       0.5       13.7       103.0  
      Surety bonds and other
         guarantees
    47.3       5.5                   52.8  
      Pension obligations on balance
         sheet
    29.7       64.1       70.7       161.9       326.4  
      Asset retirement obligations
    4.0       10.2       3.5       10.5       28.2  
      Acquisition-related contingent
         consideration accrued on
         balance sheet
    2.1       2.8       0.2             5.1  
      Other (c)
    1.1                         1.1  
                                         
    $ 1,856.5     $ 3,403.3     $ 1,974.1     $ 6,885.8     $ 14,119.7  
 
(a)
Amounts represent the expected cash payments for debt and do not include any deferred issuance costs.
(b)
Unconditional purchase obligations include agreements to purchase goods or services that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, including: fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction. Purchase obligations exclude agreements that are cancelable at any time without penalty.
(c)
Obligation represents funding commitments pursuant to investments held by the company.
 
    The contractual obligation at December 31, 2013 to purchase Life Technologies for $13.6 billion plus the assumption of debt has been omitted from the above table. The acquisition was completed on February 3, 2014.
 
    Reserves for unrecognized tax benefits of $134 million have not been included in the above table due to the inability to predict the timing of tax audit resolutions.
 
    The company has no material commitments for purchases of property, plant and equipment but expects that for 2014, such expenditures for its existing and Life Technologies businesses will approximate $470 to $490 million.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources (continued)
 
A guarantee of residual value under a build-to-suit lease arrangement for a facility that will be leased upon completion of construction has not been included in the above table due to the inability to predict if and when the guarantee may require payment. Upon completion of construction in 2014, a five-year lease will commence with options to purchase the facility or renew the lease for up to three 5-year terms. The residual value guarantee becomes operative at the end of the lease for up to a maximum of $58 million.
 
In disposing of assets or businesses, the company often provides representations, warranties and/or indemnities to cover various risks including, for example, unknown damage to the assets, environmental risks involved in the sale of real estate, liability to investigate and remediate environmental contamination at waste facilities, and unidentified tax liabilities and related legal fees. The company does not have the ability to estimate the potential liability from such indemnities because they relate to unknown conditions. However, the company has no reason to believe that these uncertainties would have a material adverse effect on its financial position, annual results of operations or cash flows.
 
The company has recorded liabilities for known indemnifications included as part of environmental liabilities. See Item 1. Business – Environmental Matters for a discussion of these liabilities.
 
 
The company is exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates and currency exchange rates, which could affect its future results of operations and financial condition. The company manages its exposure to these risks through its regular operating and financing activities. The company has periodically hedged interest rate risks of fixed-rate instruments with offsetting interest rate swaps. Additionally, the company uses short-term forward and option contracts primarily to hedge certain balance sheet and operational exposures resulting from changes in currency exchange rates. Such exposures result from purchases, sales, cash and intercompany loans that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currencies of the respective operations. The currency-exchange contracts principally hedge transactions denominated in euro, British pounds sterling, Chinese yuan, Australian dollars and Swedish krona. Income and losses arising from these derivative contracts are recognized as offsets to losses and income resulting from the underlying exposure being hedged. The company does not enter into speculative derivative agreements.
 
Interest Rates
 
The company is exposed to changes in interest rates while conducting normal business operations as a result of ongoing investing and financing activities, which affect the company’s debt as well as cash and cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2013, the company’s debt portfolio was comprised primarily of fixed rate borrowings. The fair market value of the company’s fixed interest rate debt is subject to interest rate risk. Generally, the fair market value of fixed interest rate debt will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. The total estimated fair value of the company’s debt at December 31, 2013 was $10.60 billion (see Note 12). Fair values were determined from available market prices using current interest rates and terms to maturity. If interest rates were to decrease by 100 basis points, the fair value of the company’s debt at December 31, 2013 would increase by approximately $523 million. If interest rates were to increase by 100 basis points, the fair value of the company’s debt at December 31, 2013 would decrease by approximately $482 million.
 
In addition, interest rate changes would result in a change in the company’s interest expense due to variable-rate debt instruments including swap arrangements. A 100-basis -point increase in interest rates at December 31, 2013 would increase the company’s annual pre-tax interest expense by approximately $9 million.
 
Currency Exchange Rates
 
The company views its investment in international subsidiaries with a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar as permanent. The company’s investment in international subsidiaries is sensitive to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. The functional currencies of the company’s international subsidiaries are principally denominated in Swedish krona, euro, British pounds sterling, Danish krone and Canadian dollars. The effect of a change in currency exchange rates on the company’s net investment in international subsidiaries is reflected in the “accumulated other comprehensive items” component of shareholders’ equity. A 10% depreciation in year-end 2013 functional currencies, relative to the U.S. dollar, would result in a reduction of shareholders’ equity of $758 million.

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
 
The fair value of forward currency-exchange contracts is sensitive to changes in currency exchange rates. The fair value of forward currency-exchange contracts is the estimated amount that the company would pay or receive upon termination of the contract, taking into account the change in currency exchange rates. A 10% depreciation in year-end 2013 non-functional currency exchange rates related to the company’s contracts would result in an unrealized gain on forward currency-exchange contracts of $85 million. A 10% appreciation in year-end 2013 non-functional currency exchange rates related to the company’s contracts would result in an increase in the unrealized loss on forward currency-exchange contracts of $85 million. The unrealized gains or losses on forward currency-exchange contracts resulting from changes in currency exchange rates are expected to approximately offset losses or gains on the exposures being hedged.
 
Certain of the company’s cash and cash equivalents are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the depositor and are sensitive to changes in currency exchange rates. A 10% depreciation in the related year-end 2013 non-functional currency exchange rates applied to such cash balances would result in a negative impact of $16 million on the company’s net income.
 
 
This data is submitted as a separate section to this report. See Item 15 “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.”
 
 
Not applicable.
 
Item 9A.       Controls and Procedures
 
Management’s Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
 
The company’s management, with the participation of the company’s chief executive officer and chief financial officer, evaluated the effectiveness of the company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2013. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the company’s management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on the evaluation of the company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2013, the company’s chief executive officer and chief financial officer concluded that, as of such date, the company’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
There have been no changes in the company’s internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) during the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2013, that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect the company’s internal control over financial reporting.
 
Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
 
The company’s management, including the company’s chief executive officer and chief financial officer, is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) for the company. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The company’s management conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013 based on criteria established in “Internal Control - Integrated Framework” (1992) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on this assessment, the company’s management concluded that, as of December 31, 2013, the company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective.
 
The company’s independent registered public accounting firm, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, has audited the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013, as stated in their report that appears on page F-2 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Item 9B.       Other Information
 
Not applicable.
 
PART III
 
 
The information with respect to directors required by this Item will be contained in our definitive proxy statement to be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after the close of business of the fiscal year (2014 Definitive Proxy Statement) and is incorporated in this report by reference.
 
The information with respect to executive officers required by this Item is included in Item 1 of Part I of this report.
 
The other information required by this Item will be contained in our 2014 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.
 
Item 11.        Executive Compensation
 
The information required by this Item will be contained in our 2014 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.
 
 
The information required by this Item will be contained in our 2014 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.
 
 

 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
 
The information required by this Item will be contained in our 2014 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.
 
 
The information required by this Item will be contained in our 2014 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.
 
PART IV
 
 
(a)   The following documents are filed as part of this report:
 
    (1)   Consolidated Financial Statements (see Index on page F-1 of this report):
 
       Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
       Consolidated Balance Sheet
       Consolidated Statement of Income
       Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income
       Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows
       Consolidated Statement of Shareholders’ Equity
       Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
 
    (2)   Consolidated Financial Statement Schedule (see Index on page F-1 of this report):
 
       Schedule II: Valuation and Qualifying Accounts
 
       All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or not required, or because the required information is included either in the consolidated
       financial statements or in the notes thereto.
 
(b)  Exhibits
 
   See the Exhibit Index on page 56.
 

 
SIGNATURES
 
    Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this Report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

Date:  February 27, 2014
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
   
 
By:  /s/ Marc N. Casper                                                        
 
        Marc N. Casper
 
        President and Chief Executive Officer

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities indicated, as of February 27, 2014.

Signature
 
Title
     
By:  /s/ Marc N. Casper                                             
        Marc N. Casper
 
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
     
By:  /s/ Jim P. Manzi                                                  
        Jim P. Manzi
 
Chairman of the Board and Director
     
By:  /s/ Peter M. Wilver                                            
        Peter M. Wilver
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial Officer)
     
By:  /s/ Peter E. Hornstra                                           
        Peter E. Hornstra
 
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer
(Principal Accounting Officer)
     
By:  /s/ Nelson J. Chai                                               
        Nelson J. Chai
 
Director
     
By:  /s/ C. Martin Harris                                            
        C. Martin Harris
 
Director
     
By:  /s/ Tyler E. Jacks                                                
        Tyler E. Jacks
 
Director
     
By:  /s/ Judy C. Lewent                                             
        Judy C. Lewent 
 
Director
     
By:  /s/ Thomas J. Lynch                                          
        Thomas J. Lynch
 
Director
     
By:  /s/ William G. Parrett                                          
        William G. Parrett
 
Director
     
By:  /s/ Lars R. Sorensen                                           
        Lars R. Sorensen
 
Director
     
By:  /s/ Scott M. Sperling                                          
        Scott M. Sperling
 
Director
     
By:  /s/ Elaine S. Ullian                                              
        Elaine S. Ullian
 
Director


 
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
EXHIBIT INDEX
 
Exhibit
Number
 
Description of Exhibit
   
         
2.1
 
Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of December 12, 2010, among Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Weston D Merger Co., and Dionex Corporation (filed as Exhibit 2.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed December 16, 2010 [File No. 1-8002] and incorporated in this document by reference).
   
         
2.2
 
Sale and Purchase Agreement dated May 19, 2011 among Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., CB Diagnostics Luxembourg S.À R.L, and certain funds managed and advised by Cinven Limited (filed as Exhibit 99.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed May 24, 2011 [File No. 1-8002] and incorporated in this document by reference).
   
         
2.3
 
Amendment dated August 18, 2011, to Sale and Purchase Agreement dated May 19, 2011 among Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., CB Diagnostics Luxembourg S.ÀR.L., and certain funds managed and advised by Cinven Limited (filed as Exhibit 2.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed August 24, 2011 [File No. 1-8002] and incorporated in this document by reference).
   
         
2.4
 
Amended and Restated Warranty Deed dated as of August 23, 2011 among Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Igenza Cin AB, the Michael Land Family Trust and the warrantors named as parties thereto (filed as Exhibit 2.3 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed August 24, 2011 [File No. 1-8002] and incorporated in this document by reference).
   
         
2.5
 
Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated July 15, 2012, by and among One Lambda, Inc., Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., DKC Acquisition Corp. and Dr. Emiko Terasaki, as the transaction representative (filed as Exhibit 2.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed July 18, 2012 [File No. 1-8002] and incorporated in this document by reference).
   
         
2.6
 
Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of April 14, 2013, among Life Technologies Corporation, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. and Polpis Merger Sub Co. (filed as Exhibit 2.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed April 16, 2013 [File No. 1-8002] and incorporated in this document by reference).
   
         
3.1
 
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2005 [File No. 1-8002] and incorporated in this document by reference).
   
         
3.2
 
Amendment to Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.’s Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed November 14, 2006 [File No. 1-8002] and incorporated in this document by reference).
   
         
3.3
 
Bylaws of the Registrant, as amended and effective as of July 12, 2011 (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed July 14, 2011 [File No. 1-8002] and incorporated in this document by reference).